Έρευνα: Tελικά μαθαίνουμε περισσότερα όταν κάνουμε… λάθη ~ Ο κανόνας του 85%

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Για να μάθει κανείς περισσότερα, πρέπει να κάνει λάθος σε ποσοστό 15%. Αυτή είναι η χρυσή τομή σύμφωνα με νέα έρευνα του πανεπιστημίου της Αριζόνα.

Συγκεκριμένα, φαίνεται πως όταν αποτυγχάνουμε κατά 15% σε μία δοκιμασία, η διαδικασία της μάθησης βελτιστοποιείται. Η συγκεκριμένη μελέτη, που διεξήχθη από το Πανεπιστήμιο της Αριζόνα και δημοσιεύτηκε στην επιστημονική επιθεώρηση Nature Communications, αναδεικνύει ότι όταν δίνουμε 15% λάθος απαντήσεις ή εναλλακτικά όταν απαντάμε σωστά κατά 85%, η διαδικασία της μάθησης βελτιστοποιείται.

Οι ερευνητές εκπαίδευσαν υπολογιστές να εκτελούν απλές δοκιμασίες, όπως το να ταξινομούν πράγματα σε κατηγορίες ή να οργανώνουν αριθμούς σε σύνολα. Οι υπολογιστές “μάθαιναν” γρηγορότερα όταν απαντούσαν σωστά στο 85% των περιπτώσεων.

Ο κανόνας του 85% στη νέα έρευνα

Οι υπεύθυνοι της έρευνας υποστήριξαν ότι αυτό είναι το ιδανικό επίπεδο δυσκολίας μιας δοκιμασίας προκειμένου να αυξηθεί ο ρυθμός της μάθησης. Συγκεκριμένα, αυτοί μίλησαν για τον «κανόνα του 85%» ο οποίος εφαρμόζεται και σε πράγματα που μαθαίνουμε εμπειρικά. Χαρακτηριστικό παράδειγμα θα μπορούσε να αποτελέσει ένας ακτινολόγος ο οποίος προσπαθεί να μάθει να ξεχωρίζει τις απεικονίσεις όγκων από άλλες ανωμαλίες που δεν είναι όγκοι.

«Γίνεσαι καλύτερος στον εντοπισμό όγκων με το πέρασμα του χρόνου και χρειάζεσαι παραδείγματα και εμπειρία για να βελτιωθείς», δήλωσε ο επικεφαλής συντάκτης της μελέτης Ρόμπερτ Γουίλσον, από το Πανεπιστήμιο της Αριζόνα. «Μπορώ να φανταστώ τι θα γινόταν αν δίναμε στους συμμετέχοντες πολύ εύκολες, πολύ δύσκολες ή μέτριες δοκιμασίες» είπε ο ίδιος.

Οι εύκολες εργασίες δεν μας μαθαίνουν τίποτα, λέει η έρευνα -Ούτε οι πολύ δύσκολες

Ο Γουίλσον εξήγησε ότι αν δώσεις σε κάποιον πολύ εύκολες εργασίες στις οποίες μπορεί να απαντήσει σωστά κατά 100%, τότε δεν μένει τίποτα καινούργιο να μάθει. Το ίδιο φαίνεται να συμβαίνει και με τις πολύ δύσκολες δοκιμασίες στις οποίες θα έκανε κάποιος σωστές μόνο τις μισές (50%) απαντήσεις. Πάλι σε αυτή την περίπτωση δεν μαθαίνεται τίποτα καινούργιο.

Αντιθέτως, σύμφωνα με την έρευνα, εάν πρόκειται για ένα έργο μέτριας δυσκολίας αυτός που λαμβάνει μέρος παίρνει τις περισσότερες δυνατές πληροφορίες από το κάθε λάθος του με αποτέλεσμα να βελτιώνεται η διαδικασία της μάθησης.

Πότε κερδίζει κανείς κάτι από την έρευνα

Αν και στην παρούσα έρευνα αξιοποιήθηκαν αποκλειστικά ερωτήσεις με μία απάντηση (σωστή ή λανθασμένη) ο Γουίλσον υποστηρίζει ότι αυτή η θεώρηση θα μπορούσε να εφαρμοστεί και σε πιο περίπλοκες δοκιμασίες.

Ο Γουίλσον τόνισε: «Αν παρακολουθείτε πολύ εύκολα μαθήματα τα οποία περνάτε διαρκώς με άριστα, πιθανότατα δεν κερδίζετε τόσα πολλά όσο κάποιος που καταβάλλει μεγάλη προσπάθεια για να τα πάει καλά». Ο ίδιος καταλήγει ότι στόχος των μελλοντικών ερευνών είναι να διερευνήσουν τι συμβαίνει με τις πολυπλοκότερες μορφές μάθησης.

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