Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση και ΗΠΑ στα χαρακώματα εμπορικού πολέμου πολλών δισ.

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Οργισμένες -εν μέρει- ευρωπαϊκές αντιδράσεις προκαλεί η απόφαση των ΗΠΑ για επιβολή τιμωρητικών δασμών ύψους 7,5 δισ. δολ. σε ευρωπαϊκά προϊόντα. «Ευρωπαϊκή απάντηση» αξιώνει η Γαλλία.

Με φόντο την πολύχρονη διαμάχη για τις επιδοτήσεις της ευρωπαϊκής Airbus και μετά από σχετικό «πράσινο φως» του Παγκόσμιου Οργανισμού Εμπορίου (ΠΟΕ) χθες Τετάρτη, οι ΗΠΑ προανήγγειλαν την επιβολή εκτεταμένων οικονομικών κυρώσεων συνολικής αξίας άνω των 7,5 δισ. δολαρίων (6,9 δισ. ευρώ) σε βάρος ευρωπαϊκών προϊόντων. Συγκεκριμένα από τις 18 Οκτωβρίου επιβάλλονται επιπρόσθετα τέλη ύψους 10% σε εισαγόμενα από την ΕΕ αεροπλάνα και τιμωρητικοί δασμοί ύψους 25% σε αγροτικά και βιομηχανικά προϊόντα.

Μεταξύ αυτών των προϊόντων είναι γαλλικά κρασιά και τυριά, ελιές από τη Γαλλία και την Ισπανία, εργαλεία και καφές από τη Γερμανία αλλά και σκοτσέζικα ουίσκι. Οι επιβληθείσες κυρώσεις αφορούν κυρίως προϊόντα των χωρών που φέρουν την ευθύνη των επιδοτήσεων προς τον ευρωπαϊκό κολοσσό αεροναυπηγικής Airbus, δηλαδή της Γερμανίας, της Γαλλίας, της Ισπανίας και της Μεγάλης Βρετανίας.

Χαιρετίζοντας την απόφαση του ΠΟΕ ο αμερικανός πρόεδρος Τραμπ έκανε λόγο για μια «ωραία νίκη» για τις ΗΠΑ κατηγορώντας τις ευρωπαϊκές χώρες ότι «επί χρόνια ξεζούμιζαν» τη χώρα του. Παρότι η σχετική υπόθεση ξεκίνησε πολύ πριν αναλάβει την αμερικανική προεδρία, ο ίδιος απέδωσε την «επιτυχία» αυτή στη δική του διακυβέρνηση. «Από τη στιγμή που έγινα πρόεδρος ο ΠΟΕ μάς φέρεται πολύ καλύτερα», δήλωσε χαρακτηριστικά.

Ευρωπαϊκή απάντηση ζητά η Γαλλία

«Εάν η αμερικανική κυβέρνηση απορρίψει τη χείρα συνεργασίας που της τείνει η Γαλλία και η ΕΕ τότε θα απαντήσουμε με κυρώσεις», προειδοποίησε σήμερα Πέμπτη ο Γάλλος υπουργός Οικονομικών Λε Μερ. Ο ίδιος έκανε λόγο για ένα «οικονομικό και πολιτικό λάθος».

Ο Ιταλός πρωθυπουργός Κόντε από την πλευρά του υπογράμμισε ότι η Ιταλία συνεργάζεται στενά με την ΕΕ προκειμένου να ληφθούν μέτρα που θα περιορίζουν τις συνέπειες των δασμών για τους παραγωγούς της. Σύμφωνα με τον ιταλικό αγροτικό σύνδεσμο οι δασμοί αφορούν εξαγωγές ιταλικών προϊόντων τροφίμων συνολικής αξίας 500 εκατομμυρίων ευρώ.

Δριμεία κριτική στην αμερικανική απόφαση ασκούν και παράγοντες της γερμανικής οικονομίας. Ο διευθυντής του Ομοσπονδιακού Συνδέσμου της Γερμανικής Βιομηχανίας Γιοάχιμ Λανγκ χαρακτήρισε μεν νόμιμους τους αμερικανικούς δασμούς αφού ανταποκρίνονται στους κανόνες του ΠΟΕ, σημείωσε όμως ότι είναι «επιβλαβείς για την οικονομία και τις πολιτικές σχέσεις». Κάλεσε δε και τις δυο πλευρές να καθίσουν στο τραπέζι των διαπραγματεύσεων με στόχο την εξεύρεση συμβιβαστικής λύσης που θα οδηγήσει σε κατάργηση των δασμών.

Εν όψει νέας απόφασης του ΠΟΕ

Ήδη το 2018 Παγκόσμιος Οργανισμός Εμπορίου είχε κρίνει ότι οι παράνομες κρατικές επιδοτήσεις της Airbus ζημιώνουν τoν κύριο αμερικανικό ανταγωνιστή της, την Boeing και ως εκ τούτου στοιχειοθετούν αθέμιτο ανταγωνισμό. Χθες ο οργανισμός ενέκρινε απλώς το ύψος των μέτρων που προτίθεται να επιβάλει η Ουάσιγκτον.

Σύντομα όμως ο ΠΟΕ καλείται να αποφασίσει εκ νέου για την ίδια υπόθεση. Στο μικροσκόπιο αυτή τη φορά οι αμερικανικές επιδοτήσεις προς την αμερικανική Boeing. Σε λίγους μήνες ο οργανισμός θα αποφασίσει για το ύψος της ζημίας που έχουν υποστεί οι Ευρωπαίοι, που θα τους επιτρέψει στη συνέχεια να προχωρήσουν στην επιβολή ισόποσων τιμωρητικών δασμών σε βάρος αμερικανικών προϊόντων.

Πηγή: DW / Κώστας Συμεωνίδης (dpa, tagesschau.de, afpd, rtrd)

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