Ντράγκι: Η ΕΚΤ δεν είχε ποτέ σχέδιο Β με την Ελλάδα εκτός του ευρώ

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H Ευρωπαϊκή Κεντρική Τράπεζα (ΕΚΤ) δεν είχε ποτέ ένα σχέδιο B, με την Ελλάδα εκτός του ευρώ, τόνισε ο απερχόμενος Πρόεδρός της, Μάριο Ντράγκι, σε συνέντευξή του στους Financial Times, με την οποία έστειλε και το μήνυμα ότι η Ευρωζώνη θα παραμείνει ένα «εύθραυστο οικοδόμημα» χωρίς μία σημαντική δημοσιονομική πολιτική για το σύνολό της.

Όταν, σημείωσε ο κεντρικός τραπεζίτης, ένας υπουργός είπε σε συνεδρίαση του Eurogroup ότι η ΕΚΤ θα έπρεπε να έχει από καιρό κόψει τη χρηματοδότηση στην Ελλάδα, του απάντησε: «Αν θέλετε να ωθήσετε την Ελλάδα εκτός του ευρώ, κάντε το. Μη χρησιμοποιείτε την ΕΚΤ για να το κάνετε».

Ο Ντράγκι υποστήριξε ότι η πολιτική που ακολούθησε η ΕΚΤ το 2015, όταν η Ελλάδα έφθασε κοντά στη χρεοκοπία, ήταν αρκετά επιτυχής, καθώς διατήρησε την ενότητα του ευρώ, αποτρέποντας παράλληλα προφανείς παραβιάσεις της Συνθήκης της ΕΕ. Μας είχαν ασκήσει δύο διαμετρικά αντίθετες κριτικές τότε, είπε. «Η μία ήταν ότι θα έπρεπε να έχουμε κόψει αμέσως την Ελλάδα από κάθε γραμμή χρηματοδότησης, κάτι που θα σήμαινε την πλήρη κατάρρευση της ελληνικής οικονομίας και πιθανόν την έξοδο της Ελλάδας από το ευρώ. Η άλλη έλεγε ότι θα έπρεπε να έχουμε προσφέρει απεριόριστη, χωρίς όρους ρευστότητα στην ελληνική κυβέρνηση και την ελληνική οικονομία ό,τι και να γίνει». Η ρευστότητα που δόθηκε στην Ελλάδα, τόνισε ο Ντράγκι, ήταν σημαντική. Ο συνολικός δανεισμός στις ελληνικές τράπεζες, από την ΕΚΤ και την Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος, έφθασε, στο ζενίθ της, στα 127 δισ. ευρώ ή το 71% του ΑΕΠ της χώρας, «Συνεχίσαμε», είπε, «να χρηματοδοτούμε τον ιδιωτικό τομέα με ασφαλιστικές δικλείδες για να μην υπάρξει περαιτέρω χρηματοδότηση του κράτους. Δεν υπήρξε νομισματική χρηματοδότηση. Ήταν συνολικά ο σωστός τρόπος να κινηθούμε, γιατί καταφέραμε και να κρατήσουμε ακέραιο το ευρώ και να αποφύγουμε την παραβίαση της Συνθήκης».

Ο κεντρικός τραπεζίτης ανέφερε, επίσης, ότι έγιναν τότε δύο μεγάλες αλλαγές στο πλαίσιο του ELA (της έκτακτης χρηματοδότησης των τραπεζών από την Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος): πρώτον, επιμηκύνθηκε η διάρκεια της βοήθειας και, δεύτερον, διευρύνθηκε η έκτασή της για να καλύψει ολόκληρα τραπεζικά συστήματα αντί μεμονωμένες τράπεζες.

Στην ερώτηση, τι θα απαντούσε σε όσους ασκούν κριτική, ορισμένοι από τους οποίους είναι Βρετανοί αριστεροί, που λένε ότι η Ελλάδα πλήρωσε ένα τρομερό τίμημα και για την ένταξη και για την παραμονή της στο ευρώ, ο Ντράγκι σημείωσε: «Η χώρα ερχόταν από μία μη βιώσιμη φούσκα που είχε χρηματοδοτηθεί με χρέος. Η κατάρρευση ήταν πολύ μεγάλη και η κρίση τρομερή. Ξεπεράσθηκε, χάρη πρώτον σε ό,τι κατάφεραν να επιτύχουν οι Έλληνες πολίτες. Η αλληλεγγύη, όμως, στην Ευρωζώνη ήταν επωφελής. Είναι πολύ δύσκολο για μία απομονωμένη χώρα, που χρεοκοπεί, να επιστρέψει στην κανονικότητα. Οι δράσεις της Ευρωζώνης βοήθησαν την Ελλάδα, η οποία αναπτύχθηκε με μέσο ρυθμό 1,8% στα τελευταία οκτώ τρίμηνα, με το κατά κεφαλήν εισόδημα, που είχε μειωθεί σχεδόν 23% από το 2008 έως το 2016, να αυξάνεται τώρα ξανά κατά 1,8% το 2018, και τις ιδιωτικές επενδύσεις να αρχίζουν ξανά».

Αναφερόμενος στην κληρονομιά που αφήνει, ο Ντράγκι είπε ότι η αντίδραση της ΕΚΤ στην κρίση ήταν καθοριστική για τη διατήρηση του ευρώ και της Ευρωπαϊκής Νομισματικής Ένωσης και σεβάσθηκε πάντα την εντολή της. Επιπλέον, πρόσθεσε, η ΕΚΤ είναι σήμερα ένα πολύ διαφορετικό ίδρυμα σε σχέση με το παρελθόν. «Οι υπαρξιακές προκλήσεις που έπρεπε να αντιμετωπίσει την έχουν μεταμορφώσει έντονα τόσο όσον αφορά τη νομισματική πολιτική όσο και άλλα καθήκοντά, καθώς και στη διοικητική και λειτουργική διάρθρωσή της. Τέλος, υπάρχει ένα σαφές μήνυμα, που μπορεί αν εμπνεύσει το μελλοντικό έργο για την ενίσχυση της Ένωσης. Χωρίς μία σημαντική δημοσιονομική πολιτική για το σύνολο της Ευρωζώνης, αυτή η Ένωση θα παραμένει ένα εύθραυστο οικοδόμημα».

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