Προστασία α’ κατοικίας: «Ανάσα» για χιλιάδες οφειλέτες – Αυτές είναι οι νέες αλλαγές

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Σειρά βελτιώσεων στο υφιστάμενο σύστημα προστασίας της κύριας κατοικίας από τον πλειστηριασμό επιφέρει το σχέδιο νόμου που κατατέθηκε χθες στη Βουλή. Στόχος του υπουργείου Οικονομικών είναι να αυξηθεί κατακόρυφα ο αριθμός των αιτήσεων υπαγωγής στη ρύθμιση, δύο μόλις μήνες πριν εκπνεύσει η προθεσμία. Από τους περίπου 30.000 πολίτες που έχουν ήδη ξεκινήσει τη διαδικασία, μόλις 200 έχουν ολοκληρώσει την αίτηση ενώ στους 40 περιορίζονται αυτοί που έχουν λάβει πρόταση ρύθμισης από την τράπεζα.

Πέραν όμως των βελτιωτικών κινήσεων που ανακοινώθηκαν χθες, στο τραπέζι των διαβουλεύσεων με τους θεσμούς βρίσκεται ήδη το πλαίσιο προστασίας της κύριας κατοικίας που θα ισχύει μετά την αλλαγή του χρόνου. Στόχος είναι η δημιουργία ενός «μόνιμου» πλαισίου το οποίο στην πραγματικότητα θα αποτελέσει προϊόν της «συγχώνευσης» της ηλεκτρονικής πλατφόρμας που υπάρχει σήμερα με τον νόμο Κατσέλη.

Εκκρεμεί επίσης η λήψη απόφασης για το κονδύλι που έχει εγγραφεί στον κρατικό προϋπολογισμό για την επιδότηση όσων θα επιδιώξουν να σώσουν τα σπίτια τους από τον πλειστηριασμό μέσω της πλατφόρμας. Τα 150 εκατ. ευρώ που έχουν εγγραφεί στον προϋπολογισμό του 2019 δεν θα αξιοποιηθούν καθώς είναι ζήτημα αν μέχρι το τέλος του έτους θα καταβληθούν μερικές χιλιάδες ευρώ.

Για το 2020 έχει προϋπολογιστεί ποσό της τάξεως των 20 εκατ. ευρώ και μένει να φανεί αν αυτό σημαίνει ότι θα υπάρξει –μετά και τις αλλαγές που κατατέθηκαν στη Βουλή- παράταση του υφιστάμενου πλαισίου για κάποιο χρονικό διάστημα μέσα στο 2020 μέχρι να ψηφιστεί το νέο μόνιμο πλαίσιο προστασίας της κύριας κατοικίας.

Η χθεσινή νομοθετική ρύθμιση εντάσσεται στη λογική του να απλουστευτεί όσο το δυνατόν περισσότερο το σύστημα υποβολής των αιτήσεων στην πλατφόρμα ενόψει και της λήξης της προθεσμίας. Έτσι, μετά την κατάργηση της υποχρέωσης προσκόμισης του πιστοποιητικού βαρών –από μόνο της ήταν μια σημαντική κίνηση διευκόλυνσης για πολλούς οφειλέτες- επέρχονται και οι ακόλουθες αλλαγές:

1. Διευρύνεται ο κατάλογος των αιτούντων για υπαγωγή στη ρύθμιση οφειλών καθώς μπορούν να συμπεριληφθούν και οι διαμένοντες για επαγγελματικούς λόγους σε μισθωμένο ή παραχωρημένο ακίνητο εκτός της περιφερειακής ενότητας στην οποία βρίσκεται η κύρια κατοικία.

2. Σε περίπτωση μη συνυποβολής της αίτησης και από τους υπόλοιπους έχοντες μερίδιο επί της κατοικίας, για τον προσδιορισμό του καταβλητέου ποσού του επιδόματος λαμβάνεται υπόψη το σύνολο της αξίας της προστατευόμενης κατοικίας. Εφόσον επιτευχθεί συναινετική ή δικαστική ρύθμιση, δεν επιτρέπεται σε οποιοδήποτε πιστωτή του δημοσίου η επίσπευση αναγκαστικής εκτέλεσης στην κύρια κατοικία του αιτούντος

3. Διευκρινίζεται ότι σε περίπτωση που ο επιτοκιακός δείκτης βάσει του οποίου καθορίζεται το επιτόκιο των τοκοχρεωλυτικών δόσεων αποπληρωμής των οφειλών είναι αρνητικός, το επιτόκιο της ρύθμισης ισούται με το μηδέν (σ.σ αυτή η διάταξη μπήκε λόγω της υποχώρησης του Euribor σε αρνητικό επίπεδο).

4. Σε περίπτωση ταυτόχρονης ρύθμισης οφειλών συγκυρίων που είναι και συνοφειλέτες στην ίδια οφειλή, μπορεί να προτείνεται ρύθμιση μικρότερη από το 120% της αξίας της πρώτης κατοικίας έτσι ώστε να ισούται με το συνολικό ποσό της οφειλής.

Με αυτές τις αλλαγές, το υπουργείο Οικονομικών προσβλέπει σε επιτάχυνση του ρυθμού υποβολής των αιτήσεων καθώς ανακτούν δικαίωμα συγγενείς ή διαζευγμένα ζευγάρια ή παντρεμένοι σε διάσταση που μέχρι τώρα δεν μπορούσαν να συμφωνήσουν για την υποβολή κοινής αίτησης, εργαζόμενοι σε σώματα ασφαλείας, γιατροί, εκπαιδευτικοί που έπρεπε να μείνουν σε άλλη πόλη από αυτήν που βρίσκεται η ενυπόθηκη πρώτη κατοικία τους για επαγγελματικούς λόγους. Επίσης, δίνεται η δυνατότητα σε εγγυητή μικρότερης ηλικίας να συμμετέχει στη ρύθμιση προκειμένου –για παράδειγμα- να διευκολύνει τους μεγαλύτερης ηλικίας γονείς του να μπουν στη ρύθμιση (σ.σ η ρύθμιση φτάνει στα 25 χρόνια και μεγάλης ηλικίας άτομα δεν έχουν τα χρονικά περιθώρια).

Εκτός από τις διευκολύνσεις που πέρασαν από τη Βουλή, το υπουργείο Οικονομικών περιμένει ότι θα υπάρξει αύξηση στον ρυθμό των αιτήσεων και εξαιτίας της ενεργοποίησης της ηλεκτρονικής πλατφόρμας μέσω της οποίας θα γίνουν έλεγχοι σε όσους έχουν καταφύγει στον νόμο Κατσέλη. Λόγω των διασταυρώσεων, πολλοί εκτιμάται ότι θα πειστούν να εγκαταλείψουν τα ένδικα μέσα καταφεύγοντας στην ηλεκτρονική πλατφόρμα. Σε κάθε περίπτωση, το αν θα υπάρξει παράταση ή όχι αλλά και το ποιο θα είναι το πλαίσιο προστασίας της κύριας κατοικίας μετά την 1/1, θα κριθεί και από τον ρυθμό υποβολής των αιτήσεων μέσα στις επόμενες εβδομάδες.

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