Δείτε αν σας απειλεί μίνι εγκεφαλικό

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Το παροδικό ισχαιμικό επεισόδιο (TIA), κοινώς γνωστό ως μίνι εγκεφαλικό, εκδηλώνεται με συμπτώματα που διαρκούν λιγότερο από 24 ώρες. Δεν προκαλεί μόνιμες βλάβες στον εγκέφαλο όμως είναι εξαιρετικά επικίνδυνο.

Το πρόβλημα με ένα τέτοιο περιστατικό είναι ότι μπορεί να περάσει απαρατήρητο. Αποτελεί όμως προειδοποιητικό σημάδι για το εγκεφαλικό επεισόδιο.

Περίπου το 40% των ατόμων που παθαίνει μίνι εγκεφαλικό εκδηλώνει στη συνέχεια κανονικό εγκεφαλικό επεισόδιο. Το 5% των ασθενών παθαίνει το εγκεφαλικό μέσα σε δύο ημέρες, ενώ το 10-15% των ασθενών εκδηλώνει τα συμπτώματα του εγκεφαλικού επεισοδίου μέσα σε τρεις μήνες.

Ποια είναι τα συμπτώματα του μίνι εγκεφαλικού;

Οι ενδείξεις του παροδικού ισχαιμικού επεισοδίου και του εγκεφαλικού επεισοδίου δε διαφέρουν κατά πολύ. Τα βασικά συμπτώματα είναι τα εξής:
– Ξαφνικό μούδιασμα στο πρόσωπο, το χέρι ή το πόδι, στη μία πλευρά του σώματος.
– Ξαφνική σύγχυση
– Δυσκολία στην ομιλία ή την κατανόηση
– Μειωμένη όραση στο ένα ή και τα δύο μάτια
– Δυσκολία στη βάδιση
– Ζαλάδα και απώλεια ισορροπίας

Τι προκαλεί το παροδικό ισχαιμικό επεισόδιο;

Τα αιμοφόρα αγγεία μεταφέρουν το αίμα σε ολόκληρο το σώμα μας. Όταν ένα αγγείο στον εγκέφαλο φράζει για λίγο, η ροή του αίματος σε αυτήν την περιοχή του εγκεφάλου μειώνεται δραματικά ή διακόπτεται εντελώς.

Η έλλειψη αίματος – και συνεπώς οξυγόνου – είναι η αιτία εκδήλωσης των παραπάνω συμπτωμάτων.

Το παροδικό ισχαιμικό επεισόδιο οφείλεται συνήθως σε έναν από τους παρακάτω τρεις παράγοντες:
– μειωμένη ροή αίματος σε κάποια βασική αρτηρία που μεταφέρει αίμα στον εγκέφαλο (π.χ. καρωτίδα)
– θρόμβο σε άλλο σημείο του σώματος (π.χ. καρδιά) που αποσπάται, μεταφέρεται στον εγκέφαλο και μπλοκάρει κάποιο αιμοφόρο αγγείο
– συσσώρευση πλάκας και επακόλουθη στένωση των μικρών αιμοφόρων αγγείων του εγκεφάλου, με αποτέλεσμα τη μειωμένη ροή αίματος για μικρό χρονικό διάστημα.

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