ΕΡΕΥΝΑ: Μήπως τελικά μιλάμε όλοι την ίδια γλώσσα;

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Μία νέα διεθνή επιστημονική έρευνα ανέλυσε τα δύο τρίτα των υπαρχουσών γλωσσών και κατέληξε στο συμπέρασμα πως ανεξάρτητα σε ποια γωνιά του πλανήτη ζουν οι άνθρωποι και ποια γλώσσα μιλάνε, όταν αναφέρονται στην ίδια λέξη, τείνουν να χρησιμοποιούν παρόμοιους ήχους.

Έτσι, για παράδειγμα, όταν οι άνθρωποι λένε «στρογγυλό» ή «ερυθρό», σε οποιαδήποτε γλώσσα, οι αντίστοιχες λέξεις είναι πολύ πιθανό ότι θα περιέχουν τον ήχο «ρ», ενώ όταν λένε, «φύλλο», είναι πιθανό ότι στην αντίστοιχη λέξη θα περιέχεται ο ήχος «λ» ή «π». Και πάει λέγοντας…

Οι ερευνητές ανέλυσαν δειγματοληπτικά περίπου 100 λέξεις του καθημερινού λεξιλογίου στο 62% των τουλάχιστον 6.000 γλωσσών που μιλιούνται ακόμη στον πλανήτη μας και βρήκαν μια σημαντική στατιστική συσχέτιση όσον αφορά τους ήχους των λέξεων. Αυτή η διαπίστωση θέτει σε αμφισβήτηση την παλαιά πεποίθηση των γλωσσολόγων ότι η συσχέτιση ανάμεσα στους ήχους μιας λέξης και στο νόημά της είναι κατά βάση αυθαίρετη. Είναι η πρώτη φορά που μια μελέτη αμφισβητεί με τόσο πειστικά επιχειρήματα αυτό το «δόγμα».

Οι επιστήμονες από διάφορες χώρες, με επικεφαλής τον Μόρτεν Κρίστιανσεν, καθηγητή ψυχολογίας και διευθυντή του Εργαστηρίου Γνωσιακής Νευροεπιστήμης του αμερικανικού Πανεπιστημίου Κορνέλ, που έκαναν τη σχετική δημοσίευση στο περιοδικό της Εθνικής Ακαδημίας Επιστημών των ΗΠΑ (PNAS), επεσήμαναν ότι «βεβαίως δεν έχουν όλες οι λέξεις τους ίδιους ήχους, όμως αυτό συμβαίνει σε βαθμό πολύ μεγαλύτερο από ό,τι θα περίμενε κανείς με βάση την τύχη».

Η ηχητική ομοιότητα αφορά κυρίως τα κοινά καθημερινά αντικείμενα και τις κοινές έννοιες, από τα μέρη του σώματος και τις οικογενειακές σχέσεις μέχρι τα φαινόμενα της φύσης. Για λόγους που δεν είναι ξεκάθαροι στους επιστήμονες, φαίνεται πως οι άνθρωποι είχαν και έχουν την τάση να χρησιμοποιούν παρεμφερείς ήχους για να περιγράψουν αυτά τα πράγματα.

Η πιο σαφής ηχητική ομοιότητα αφορά τις λέξεις που περιγράφουν τα μέρη του σώματος. Από την άλλη, για άγνωστους λόγους, σε ορισμένες λέξεις, όπως το «εγώ» και το «εσύ», είναι σχεδόν απαγορευμένοι ορισμένοι ήχοι, όπως «π», «ρ», «τ», «σ» κ.α.

«Τα ίδια ηχητικά πρότυπα εμφανίζονται ξανά και ξανά σε όλο τον κόσμο, άσχετα από τη γεωγραφική διασπορά των ανθρώπων και την καταγωγή της γλώσσας τους. Φαίνεται πως κάτι τους οδηγεί σε αυτή την επιλογή. Δεν γνωρίζουμε τι είναι, αλλά ξέρουμε ότι υπάρχει», δήλωσε ο Κρίστιανσεν.

Το γιατί συμβαίνει αυτό, παραμένει ένα ανοιχτό ερώτημα, που θα διερευνηθεί περαιτέρω. Πιθανώς έχει να κάνει με τον τρόπο που λειτουργούν ο νους και ο εγκέφαλος.

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