Γιατί ο Ερντογάν χαιρετά με τέσσερα δάχτυλα

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Συχνά ο τούρκος πρόεδρος Ρετζέπ Ταγίπ Ερντογάν και οι οπαδοί του συνηθίζουν να χαιρετούν στις πολιτικές συγκεντρώσεις με τέσσερα δάχτυλα, διπλώνοντας προς το εσωτερικό της παλάμης τους τον αντίχειρα.

Ο χαιρετισμός αυτός δεν είναι μία τουρκική πρωτοτυπία, αλλά πρόκειται για μία συνθηματική κίνηση που έχει υιοθετηθεί από πολλές ισλαμιστικές ομάδες και η πατρότητα της ανήκει στους οπαδούς του ανατραπέντος αιγύπτιου προέδρου Μοχάμεντ Μόρσι.

Ο χαιρετισμός αυτός, το σήμα πιο ορθά, ονομάζεται «ραμπιά», που στα αραβικά σημαίνει τέταρτο (-η). Το χρησιμοποίησαν για πρώτη φορά οι οπαδοί του Μόρσι και μέλη των «Αδελφών Μουσουλμάνων» που ήταν συγκεντρωμένοι στην πλατεία Ραμπιάτουλ Αντεβιγέ του Καΐρου, όταν τον Ιούλιο του 2013 ο πρόεδρος της Αιγύπτου ανετράπη από το στρατό.

Ο χαιρετισμός τους είχε μία τριπλή σημειολογία: 1- Ο Μόρσι ήταν ο τέταρτος πρόεδρος της χώρας, μετά τον Νάσερ, τον Σαντάντ και τον Μουμπάρακ. 2- Θύμιζε την πλατεία Ραμπιάτουλ Αντεβιγέ, κεντρικό σημείο συγκέντρωσης των οπαδών του Μόρσι, ίσως πιο εμβληματικό και από την γνωστή ανά την υφήλιο πλατεία Ταχρίρ. 3- Χρησιμοποιήθηκε σε αντιπαραβολή προς το γνωστό σήμα της νίκης (V) που έκαναν οι οπαδοί του στρατηγού Αμπντούλ Φατάχ αλ-Σίσι και θεωρήθηκε δυτική επιρροή.

Ο Ερντογάν, ως πρωθυπουργός ακόμη τότε, έκανε για πρώτη φορά το σήμα «ραμπιά» σε συγκέντρωση του κόμματος του στη Προύσα στις 17 Αυγούστου του 2013. Έκτοτε η κίνηση αυτή υιοθετήθηκε από όλους του υπουργούς, τα στελέχη και τους οπαδούς του Κόμματος Δικαιοσύνης και Ανάπτυξης (ΑΚΡ), αλλά και εκτός ΑΚΡ, από θρησκευόμενους συντηρητικούς κύκλους. Τελευταία μάλιστα εντύπωση προκάλεσε το γεγονός ότι ένα στέλεχος της τουρκικής ολυμπιακής αποστολής στο Ρίο, ο γενικός διευθυντής του υπουργείου Νεολαίας και Αθλητισμού Μεχμέτ Μπαϊκάν, έκανε το σήμα «ραμπιά» κατά την παρέλαση των εθνικών ομάδων στην τελετή έναρξης.

Στην Τουρκία επιχειρήθηκε προς στιγμήν να δοθεί άλλη ερμηνεία στο χαιρετισμό του Ερντογάν με τα τέσσερα δάχτυλα. Ορισμένοι, επηρεασμένοι προφανώς και από τις επικρατούσες εθνικιστικές κορώνες ως αντίδραση στο αυτονομιστικό αντάρτικο των Κούρδων, απέδωσαν στην κίνηση αυτή τον τετραπλό συμβολισμό «ένα έθνος», «μία σημαία», «μία πατρίδα», «ένα κράτος». Η ερμηνεία όμως αυτή αποδείχτηκε γρήγορα κενή περιεχομένου.

Για την ιστορία, η πλατεία Ραμπιάτουλ Αντεβιγέ της Αιγύπτου πήρε την ονομασία της από την Ραμπιά, ποιήτρια και εξέχουσα προσωπικότητα του τάγματος των Σούφι τον 8ο μΧ αιώνα. Ονομάστηκε Ραμπιά ακριβώς επειδή ήταν το τέταρτο παιδί της οικογένειας της, έμεινε ορφανή σε πολύ μικρή ηλικία, μεγάλωσε ως σκλάβα στη Βασόρα και όταν αργότερα απελευθερώθηκε αφιέρωσε τη ζωή της στον ασκητισμό, την ποίηση, τη μελέτη και τις συζητήσεις με άλλους λόγιους των Σούφι, στη θεολογία των οποίων κατέχει εξέχουσα θέση, ανάλογη με εκείνη των αγίων στο χριστιανικό κόσμο.

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