Γιατί ο μύθος του Χρυσόμαλλου Δέρατος είχε… ”χρυσό” ιστορικό υπόβαθρο

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Ο διάσημος μύθος του Χρυσόμαλλου Δέρατος, του Ιάσονα και της Αργοναυτικής Εκστρατείας είχε ένα -κυριολεκτικό- «χρυσό» υπόβαθρο. Τι σημαίνει αυτό; Σύμφωνα με Γεωργιανούς γεωλόγους ότι ο μύθος ήταν μεν προϊόν της πλούσιας φαντασίας των αρχαίων Ελλήνων, όμως ξεκινούσε από ιστορικά δεδομένα καθώς εκτιμούν ότι υπήρχε άφθονος χρυσός σε εκείνη την περιοχή του Εύξεινου Πόντου (σημερινή Γεωργία).

Σε σημείο, μάλιστα, που ψήγματα χρυσού που παρέσερναν τα ποταμάκια, κόλλαγαν πάνω στα δέρατα (δέρματα, προβιές) των ζώων που χρησιμοποιούσαν οι ντόπιοι.

Οι ερευνητές, με επικεφαλής τον γεωλόγο δρα Αβνταντίλ Οκροστσβαρίτζε του Ινστιτούτου Γεωεπιστημών του Πανεπιστημίου Ίλια της Τυφλίδας, που έκαναν τη σχετική δημοσίευση στο διεθνές γεωλογικό περιοδικό «Quaternary International», σύμφωνα με τη βρετανική «Ντέιλι Μέιλ», πραγματοποίησαν μια εκτεταμένη έρευνα για αποθέματα χρυσού στην ορεινή περιοχή Σβανέτι, στη βορειοδυτική Γεωργία, που αποτελούσε μέρος του αρχαίου πλούσιου βασιλείου της Κολχίδας, το οποίο υπήρχε από τον 6ο έως τον 1ο αιώνα π.Χ. (αν και μέχρι σήμερα παραμένει διαφιλονικούμενη η ακριβής επικράτεια του εν λόγω βασιλείου).

Η μελέτη άνω των 1.000 δειγμάτων του εδάφους, με σύγχρονα τεχνολογικά μέσα, έδειξε ότι η εν λόγω περιοχή ήταν και είναι πλούσια σε χρυσό. Όπως ανέφεραν οι ερευνητές, οι αρχαίοι χωρικοί χρησιμοποιούσαν προβιές για να μαζέψουν τα ψήγματα χρυσού από τα ποταμάκια στην περιοχή τους. Τα δέρματα τοποθετούνταν στην κοίτη του ποταμιού, παγιδεύοντας πάνω του τα κομματάκια του πολύτιμου μετάλλου.

Έτσι, πιθανότατα προέκυψε η εικόνα ενός δέρματος διάσπαρτου με χρυσάφι, που τελικά οδήγησε στον μύθο του Χρυσόμαλλου Δέρατος. Οι Γεωργιανοί γεωλόγοι πιθανολογούν ότι η εκστρατεία του Ιάσονα και των Αργοναυτών του ήταν ένα πραγματικό συμβάν, που είχε ως κίνητρο την επιθυμία των Ελλήνων να μάθουν περισσότερα για τον χρυσό εκείνης της περιοχής και για την ειδική τεχνική των ντόπιων να τον συλλέγουν με τη βοήθεια δερμάτων ζώων.

Η «Αργώ» και το ταξίδι της, που έγινε πριν τον Τρωικό πόλεμο, περιγράφεται από τον Όμηρο στην «Οδύσσεια» και τον Ευριπίδη στην «Μήδεια», ενώ υπάρχουν διάφορες εκδοχές του μύθου που έχουν διασωθεί από την αρχαιότητα. Έκτοτε μέχρι σήμερα οι ιστορικοί έχουν κατά καιρούς δώσει διάφορες εξηγήσεις για το τι μπορεί να συμβόλιζε το Χρυσόμαλλο Δέρας.

Oι Γεωργιανοί ερευνητές ανέφεραν ότι η υπόθεσή τους ενισχύεται από το γεγονός πως στην περιοχή Σβανέτι (Κολχίδα) έχουν ανακαλυφθεί διάφορα χρυσά αντικείμενα, όπως ένας μοναδικός χρυσός λέων, που δείχνουν ότι οι αρχαίοι κάτοικοί της είχαν προχωρημένες γνώσεις μεταλλουργίας.

«Η εξόρυξη και η καλλιτεχνική επεξεργασία του χρυσού βρισκόταν σε πολύ υψηλό επίπεδο, από πολύ νωρίς στην ιστορία των αρχαίων Γεωργιανών βασιλείων. H μελέτη μας δείχνει ότι τα αποθέματα χρυσού στις αμμώδεις κοίτες των ποταμών αυτής της περιοχής είναι αρκετά μεγάλα για να δικαιολογήσουν τη δημιουργία αυτών των μύθων», δήλωσε ο Αβνταντίλ Οκροστσβαρίτζε.

Μάλιστα, τα ποταμάκια της περιοχής συνεχίζουν και σήμερα να κατεβάζουν ψήγματα χρυσού από τα βουνά και μερικοί ντόπιοι χρησιμοποιούν ακόμη την παραδοσιακή μέθοδο απόκτησης του χρυσού με τη βοήθεια δερμάτων!

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