Η δεκάδα των χωρών που “κολυμπούν” στο πετρέλαιο

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Με αφορμή τη συμφωνία του Ιράν σχετικά με το πυρηνικό πρόγραμμα της χώρας, το Business Insider δημοσίευσε τη λίστα με τις 10 χώρες που έχουν τα μεγαλύτερα αποθέματα πετρελαίου, βασισμένη σε στοιχεία της Barclays.

10. Νιγηρία

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 37,14 δισ. βαρέλια.

Το πετρέλαιο είναι η βασική πηγή εσόδων για την κυβέρνηση της χώρας από τη δεκαετία του ’70. Ομως, η Νιγηρία έχει δυσκολευτεί αρκετά μετά από την περσινή κατάρρευση στην τιμή του πετρελαίου. Και τώρα έχει να αντιμετωπίσει επιπλέον ανταγωνισμό, εξαιτίας της επανόδου του ιρανικού πετρελαίου στην αγορά.

9. Λιβύη

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 48,47 δισ. βαρέλια.

Η οικονομία της χώρας εξαρτάται σχεδόν αποκλειστικά από την ενέργεια. Οι πωλήσεις πετρελαίου και φυσικού αερίου έπεσαν κατακόρυφα το 2014, μετά από τις ογκώδεις διαμαρτυρίες στα λιμάνια.

8. Ρωσία

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 80 δισ. βαρέλια.

Αν και η Μόσχα αναμένεται να επωφεληθεί γεωπολιτικά μετά από τη συμφωνία του Ιράν, η επιστροφή του στην αγορά πετρελαίου αποτελεί άσχημο νέο για τη Ρωσία, καθώς η Τεχεράνη θα την κοντράρει στην ευρωπαϊκή αγορά.

7. Ηνωμένα Αραβικά Εμιράτα

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 97,8 δισ. βαρέλια.

Μία ακόμη χώρα που εξαρτάται από την ενέργεια. Μετά από την πτώση στις τιμές των 2014 τα Ηνωμένα Αραβικά Εμιράτα -μία από τις μεγαλύτερες παραγωγούς του ΟΠΕΚ- παράγει τεράστιες ποσότητες αργού.

6. Κουβέιτ

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 104 δισ. βαρέλια.

Το πετρέλαιο αποτελεί πάνω από το μισό ΑΕΠ της χώρας, που σκοπεύει να αυξήσει την παραγωγή της στα 4 εκατομμύρια βαρέλια την ημέρα, έως το 2020. Μετά από τις κυρώσεις στο Ιράν, το 2012, το Κουβέιτ μαζί με τη Σαουδική Αραβία πήραν τη θέση της Τεχεράνης στην ασιατική αγορά.

5. Ιράκ

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 140,3 δισ. βαρέλια.

Η οικονομία του Ιράκ βασίζεται σε μεγάλο βαθμό στο πετρέλαιο. Κατά συνέπεια, όταν έπεσαν οι τιμές, τα έσοδα του κράτους μειώθηκαν κατά 30%. Από το 2015 το Ιράκ αντλεί πετρέλαιο σε ρυθμούς ρεκόρ.

4. Ιράν

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 157,3 δισ. βαρέλια.

Οι αναλυτές εκτιμούν ότι η επιστροφή του ιρανικού πετρελαίου στην παγκόσμια αγορά θα οδηγήσει σε μείωση των τιμών. Επιπλέον, προβλέπουν αυξημένη ένταση στις σχέσεις Ιράν- Σαουδικής Αραβίας, όπως και Ιράν- Ρωσίας.

3. Καναδάς

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 173,2 δισ. βαρέλια.

Η χώρα εξάγει το μεγαλύτερο μέρος του πετρελαίου της στις ΗΠΑ και την Ευρώπη. Ομως, πρόσφατη έκθεση έδειξε ότι είναι κατά περίπου 20% περισσότερες οι εκπομπές του διοξειδίου του άνθρακα. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι- με δεδομένο ότι εξάγει πετρέλαιο στις ΗΠΑ- μακροπρόθεσμα οι εκπομπές αερίων ου θερμοκηπίου στις ΗΠΑ θα αυξηθούν, ακόμη κι αν παραμείνει στο ίδιο επίπεδο η κατανάλωση καυσίμων.

2. Σαουδική Αραβία

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 268,4 δισ. βαρέλια.

Ηταν ο μεγάλος παίκτης στο «παιχνίδι» του πετρελαίου πέρυσι. Πρόσφατα- μαζί με τον υπόλοιπο ΟΠΕΚ- αρνήθηκε να περικόψει τις τιμές.

1. Βενεζουέλα

Διαπιστωμένα αποθέματα: 297,7 δισ. βαρέλια.

Το 96% των εσόδων από εξαγωγές που κάνει η χώρα, προέρχονται από το πετρέλαιο. Κάτι που αντιστοιχεί στο 40% των κρατικών εσόδων και το 11% του ΑΕΠ. Κατά συνέπεια, η πτώση των τιμών το 2014, σε συνδυασμό με την ύφεση, διέλυσαν την οικονομία της Βενεζουέλας. Τώρα, η χώρα αναζητά συμμάχους εκτός του ΟΠΕΚ, ελπίζοντας στη σταθεροποίηση των τιμών.

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