H Υπηρεσίας Πολιτικής Αεροπορίας βάζει σε τάξη τη χρήση των drones

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H Υπηρεσίας Πολιτικής Αεροπορίας από την 1 Ιανουαρίου 2017 βάζει σε τάξη τα Συστήματα μη Επανδρωμένων Αεροσκαφών – ΣμηΕΑ, γνωστά ως drones.

Ένας νέος κανονισμός της Υπηρεσίας Πολιτικής Αεροπορίας, που δημοσιεύθηκε σε ΦΕΚ (3152/Β/30.9.2016), καθορίζει όλη την διαδικασία για το ευαίσθητο θέμα των Συστημάτων μη Επανδρωμένων Αεροσκαφών – ΣμηΕΑ, το οποίο άπτεται θεμάτων ασφαλείας πτήσεων, αλλά και ιδιωτικότητας, προστασίας δεδομένων, αστικής ευθύνης, προστασίας του πολίτη, προστασίας του περιβάλλοντος, τα οποία αντιμετωπίζονται κατά αρμοδιότητα. Η δομή του κανονισμού είναι διαμορφωμένη στα πλαίσια των αρχών του Ευρωπαϊκού Οργανισμού για την Ασφάλεια της Αεροπορίας (EASA) και του Διεθνούς Οργανισμού Πολιτικής Αεροπορίας (ICAO), κατά τρόπο ώστε να γίνει ευχερής η πλήρης ενσωμάτωση των ευρωπαϊκών κανονισμών που αναμένεται να διαμορφωθούν στο μέλλον.

Σύμφωνα με τον κανονισμό, τα drones χωρίζονται σε τρεις κατηγορίες και ο εκμεταλλευόμενος και ο χειριστής του ΣμηΕΑ Ειδικής, Πιστοποιημένης ή και Ανοικτής Κατηγορίας με εμβέλεια τηλεχειρισμού άνω των 50 μ. εγγράφονται σε ειδικό Μητρώο που τηρείται από την ΥΠΑ.

Ειδικότερα, πρόκειται για τις παρακάτω κατηγορίες:

Ανοιχτή κατηγορία: Εδώ ο χειριστής έχει απευθείας οπτική επαφή με το drone, το οποίο είναι έως 25 κιλά και η πτήση διεξάγεται σε απόσταση μικρότερη των 500 μέτρων από τον χειριστή. Το μεγαλύτερο επιτρεπόμενο ύψος πτήσης είναι τα 400 πόδια και οι πτήσεις της συγκεκριμένης κατηγορίας απαγορεύονται πάνω από συγκεντρώσεις προσώπων, εκτός αν διαθέτουν άδεια επαγγελματικής χρήσης και πληρούν συγκεκριμένες προδιαγραφές ασφαλείας.

Ειδική κατηγορία: Στην περίπτωση αυτή απαιτείται άδεια πτητικής λειτουργίας, η οποία χορηγείται εφόσον ο ενδιαφερόμενος προσκομίσει σχέδιο αξιολόγησης κινδύνων ασφαλείας, εγχειρίδιο πτητικής λειτουργίας και ασφαλιστήριο συμβόλαιο. Σε περίπτωση εμπορικής χρήσης απαιτείται και η εγγραφή του drone σε ειδικό μητρώο και η εξασφάλιση ειδικής άδειας μέσω της πληρωμής παραβόλου.

Πιστοποιημένη κατηγορία: Στην περίπτωση αυτή απαιτείται η νηολόγηση του αεροσκάφους σε ειδικό μητρώο και η έκδοση πιστοποιητικού αξιοπλοΐας. Ο χειριστής αυτής της κατηγορίας θα διαθέτει ειδική εκπαίδευση, το περιεχόμενο και οι εξετάσεις της οποίας θα καθοριστούν. με απόφαση του διοικητή της ΥΠΑ.

Σύμφωνα με τον κανονισμό, ακόμα και στην πρώτη κατηγορία, στην περίπτωση που η χρήση των drones δεν είναι ερασιτεχνική, ο χειριστής τους οφείλει να παρακολουθήσει ορισμένα μαθήματα προκειμένου να λάβει μια σχετική πιστοποίηση, ενώ τα μη επανδρωμένα αεροσκάφη που χρησιμοποιούνται για επαγγελματικούς και εμπορικούς σκοπούς θα πρέπει να ασφαλίζονται. Για την εμπορική εκμετάλλευση μη επανδρωμένου αεροσκάφους οποιασδήποτε κατηγορίας απαιτείται ειδική άδεια της ΥΠΑ, η οποία έχει δωδεκάμηνη ισχύ και ανανεώνεται ύστερα από επανέλεγχο και πληρωμή νέου παραβόλου. Σύμφωνα με τον κανονισμό, θα πρέπει να είναι δηλωμένα σε μητρώο της Υπηρεσίας Πολιτικής Αεροπορίας όλα τα μη επανδρωμένα αεροσκάφη (drones) που πετούν σε απόσταση μεγαλύτερη των 50 μέτρων από τον χειριστή τους ανεξαρτήτως από τους λόγους χρήσης τους, ενώ ακόμη και τα ερασιτεχνικά θα πρέπει να δηλώνονται μέσω μιας απλής δήλωσης που θα συμπληρώνεται και θα αποστέλλεται ηλεκτρονικά.

«Ανεξαρτήτως του αν τα μη επανδρωμένα αεροσκάφη χρησιμοποιούνται για εμπορικό, επιστημονικό ή ψυχαγωγικό σκοπό καθώς και για την εκτέλεση πτήσεων αεροπορικών εργασιών, ο ιδιοκτήτης ή μισθωτής τους είναι υποχρεωμένος να δηλώνει στην αεροπορική αρχή το είδος της χρήσης τους» σημειώνεται στον κανονισμό, ενώ τονίζεται ότι πρέπει να γίνεται σεβαστή η νομοθεσία για την προστασία των προσωπικών δεδομένων.

Μια από τις πολύ σημαντικές παραμέτρους του Κανονισμού για drones είναι ότι θα απαιτείται ασφαλιστική κάλυψη τόσο για τα ΣμηΕΑ “Ανοικτής Κατηγορίας” σε περίπτωση επαγγελματικής χρήσης, όσο και για τα ΣμηΕΑ της “Ειδικής Κατηγορίας” καθώς και για τα ΣμηΕΑ της “Πιστοποιημένης Κατηγορίας”. Ειδικότερα έναντι υλικών ζημιών τρίτων έως 150.000 και για σωματικές βλάβες έως 1.000.000.

Κανόνες κυκλοφορίας

Σε ό,τι αφορά τους κανόνες εναέριας κυκλοφορίας για τη διεξαγωγή των πτήσεων τους, σύμφωνα με τον κανονισμό, επιτρέπεται γενικά σε εναέριο χώρο διαχωρισμένο από τον εναέριο χώρο που χρησιμοποιείται από τα επανδρωμένα αεροσκάφη.

Ειδικότερα, επιτρέπεται να ίπτανται:

α. Κάτω από τα επιτρεπόμενα όρια για την κυκλοφορία επανδρωμένων αεροσκαφών με κανόνες πτήσεως διά οργάνων (IFR) ή/και εξ όψεως (VFR), με μέγιστο ύψος τα 400 πόδια επάνω από το έδαφος ή την επιφάνεια της θάλασσας.

β. Επάνω από τα ανώτερα όρια του ελεγχομένου εναέριου χώρου για την κυκλοφορία επανδρωμένων αεροσκαφών (επίπεδο πτήσεως 460 έως 46.000 πόδια).

γ. Εντός προσωρινών αποκλειστικών περιοχών που προσδιορίζονται από τις υπηρεσίες εναέριας κυκλοφορίας της ΥΠΑ για πτήσεις ΣΜηΕΑ.

δ. Σε καθορισμένα ίχνη και ύψη που προσδιορίζονται με ειδικές άδειες των υπηρεσιών εναέριας κυκλοφορίας της ΥΠΑ.

Απαγορεύεται να πετούν σε εναέριο χώρο:

α. Όπου διενεργούνται πτήσεις επανδρωμένων αεροσκαφών με κανόνες πτήσεως δια οργάνων ή και εξ όψεως.

β. Εντός των ζωνών κυκλοφορίας των αεροδρομίων και ούτως ή άλλως σε απόσταση μικρότερη των 8 χιλιομέτρων από την περίμετρο του αεροδρομίου και από τα ίχνη προσγείωσης/απογείωσης από/προς το αεροδρόμιο.

γ. Στις απαγορευμένες περιοχές για τις πτήσεις συστημάτων μη επανδρωμένων αεροσκαφών, όπως ορίζονται από τους αρμόδιους φορείς και δημοσιεύονται με απόφαση της ΥΠΑ.

δ. Εντός των απαγορευμένων και περιορισμένων περιοχών, εντός των οποίων απαγορεύονται ή περιορίζονται οι πτήσεις των επανδρωμένων αεροσκαφών, οι οποίες ορίζονται από τις υπηρεσίες εναέριας κυκλοφορίας. Σε ειδικές περιπτώσεις και κατόπιν αιτήματος προς την ΥΠΑ υπάρχει η δυνατότητα να επιτραπεί η πτήση ΣΜηΕΑ σε σχετικό εναέριο χώρο.

Επίσης, ο χειριστής είναι υπεύθυνος για την ασφαλή λειτουργία και την ασφαλή απόσταση του ΣμηΕΑ από ανθρώπους και κινητά/ακίνητα στοιχεία περιουσίας στο έδαφος ή τη θάλασσα. Οι χειριστές των ΣμηΕΑ που χρησιμοποιούνται για μη επαγγελματικούς σκοπούς θα εξασφαλίζουν ότι δεν θα ίπτανται πάνω από ανθρώπους. Ακόμα απαγορεύεται γενικά η πτήση ΣΜηΕΑ επάνω από συγκεντρώσεις προσώπων. Εξαιρούνται τα ΣμηΕΑ και οι χειριστές τους όταν διαθέτουν άδεια επαγγελματικής χρήσης με καταχώρηση για πτήσεις επάνω από συγκεντρώσεις και η πτητική ασφάλεια συμπληρώνεται με μηχανισμούς ασφαλείας (αλεξίπτωτα, μικρό βάρος σώματος με αφρώδες υλικό κ.α).

Η διεξαγωγή των πτήσεων ΣΜηΕΑ με λειτουργία σε απόσταση οπτικής επαφής ή και με λειτουργία σε απόσταση με επέκταση οπτικής επαφής (μέσω της εικόνας που μεταδίδεται από την κάμερα του drone στο χειριστήριο) θα διενεργείται στα χρονικά όρια μισής ώρας πριν από την ανατολή του ηλίου έως μισής ώρας μετά από τη δύση του ηλίου.

Τέλος, σε ισχύ τίθενται και πρόστιμα, τα οποία αφορούν την παραβίαση των διατάξεων του νέου κανονισμού σε σχέση με τη λειτουργία, την εκμετάλλευση, την ασφάλεια, τους κανόνες εναέριας κυκλοφορίας, καθώς και τις διατάξεις άλλων νόμων και κανονισμών της πολιτικής αεροπορίας ή την άρνηση ελέγχου από την ΥΠΑ, βάσει του Κώδικα Αεροπορικού Δικαίου. Τα πρόστιμα αποτελούν δημόσιο έσοδο και εισπράττονται κατά τις διατάξεις του Κώδικα περί εισπράξεων δημοσίων εσόδων καθώς και τις ειδικότερους σχετικές διαδικασίες της ΥΠΑ.

Πηγή: iefimerida.gr

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