Μελέτη του ΕΜΠ: Εννιά περιοχές της Αττικής κινδυνεύουν όπως το Μάτι

mati katastrofi
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Οχτώ μήνες μετά την τραγωδία με τους 100 νεκρούς στο Μάτι και τρεις μήνες πριν από την έναρξη της θερινής περιόδου, σε έρευνα του ΕΜΠ καταγράφονται εννέα ευάλωτοι οικισμοί της Αττικής που χρήζουν άμεσων παρεμβάσεων.

Επικίνδυνες φυτεύσεις, ελλιπές οδικό δίκτυο με στενούς δρόμους (οι οποίοι στην πλειονότητά τους δεν δίνουν πρόσβαση απευθείας στη θάλασσα) και αδιέξοδα, ανύπαρκτη ρυμοτομία, βραχώδεις ακτογραμμές, διάσπαρτες κατοικίες, αποκλεισμός των διόδων προς τη θάλασσα με μάντρες ή περιφράξεις, σε συνδυασμό με τις μετεωρολογικές συνθήκες του καλοκαιριού και την ανυπαρξία αντιπυρικών ζωνών, δημιουργούν ένα εκρηκτικό κοκτέιλ παραγόντων που υπό συνθήκες θα μπορούσαν να οδηγήσουν σε μια νέα τραγωδία.

Σε αυτό το συμπέρασμα καταλήγει η μελέτη της Μονάδας Βιώσιμης Κινητικότητας του ΕΜΠ, που διενεργήθηκε λίγους μήνες μετά τη φονική πυρκαγιά στο Μάτι, στο πλαίσιο της εκπαιδευτικής διαδικασίας του μεταπτυχιακού προγράμματος «Περιβάλλον και Ανάπτυξη», με επιβλέποντα τον δρα πολεοδόμο-συγκοινωνιολόγο μηχανικό Ευθύμιο Μπακογιάννη.

Σύμφωνα με τα συμπεράσματα αυτής της έρευνας, οι έξι πιο ευάλωτοι οικισμοί στην ανατολική Αττική σε περίπτωση πυρκαγιάς είναι, με σειρά επικινδυνότητας, το Μάτι, η Κακιά Θάλασσα, η Βραυρώνα, η Χαμολιά, το Ζούμπερι και οι Αγιοι Απόστολοι (στο τµήµα τους που ανήκει στη ζώνη μείξης δάσους-κατοικιών), οι οποίοι συγκέντρωσαν τη χαμηλότερη βαθμολογία στον δείκτη που χρησιμοποιήθηκε αλλά και στη φωτοερμηνεία που ακολούθησε µέσω του Google.

Ως δυνάμει επικίνδυνοι κρίθηκαν στην πρώτη κατάταξη και οι οικισμοί στο Πόρτο Ράφτη, στον Θορικό και στα Λεγρενά. Ωστόσο, εντοπίζοντας τις εγκαταστάσεις πυρόσβεσης και καταγράφοντας ακόμα και τις πισίνες ως πεδία άντλησης νερού για λόγους κατάσβεσης φωτιάς σε περίπτωση έκτακτης ανάγκης, προέκυψε ότι δεν ανήκουν στις πλέον προβληματικές περιπτώσεις.

Συγκεκριμένα, στο Πόρτο Ράφτη η ακτογραμμή δεν είναι κρημνώδης σχεδόν σε κανένα τµήµα της, ενώ διαθέτει Πυροσβεστική εντός του οικισμού αλλά και πολλές πισίνες που μπορούν να αξιοποιηθούν.

Στον οικισμό του Θορικού η ακτογραμμή επίσης δεν είναι κρημνώδης, ενώ είναι πολύ μικρός και μπορεί να εξυπηρετηθεί από την Πυροσβεστική του Λαυρίου που είναι κοντά.

Ο οικισμός των Λεγρενών εμφανίζει επίσης εύκολη πρόσβαση προς τη θάλασσα.

Η συγκεκριμένη έρευνα κατέγραψε τα προβλήματα σε μια προκαθορισμένη περιοχή, αλλά αντίθετες περιπτώσεις οικισμών είναι διάσπαρτες σε όλη την Ελλάδα και όχι μόνο σε παραθαλάσσιες περιοχές.

Βέβαια, η επικινδυνότητα και τα χαρακτηριστικά των εν λόγω οικισμών δεν πρέπει να αποτελούν «άλλοθι» για την αδυναμία αντιμετώπισης μιας πυρκαγιάς σε κατοικημένη περιοχή. Αντιθέτως, σημειώνουν οι ειδικοί, αυτός είναι ο βασικός λόγος για τον οποίο πρέπει να αποτελούν βασική προτεραιότητα η πρόληψη, ο αποτελεσματικός συντονισμός και η επιχειρησιακή δυνατότητα των αρμοδίων φορέων για την αντιμετώπιση πυρκαγιών, προκειμένου να μην κινδυνεύσουν ξανά ανθρώπινες ζωές.

Οι ερευνητές επέλεξαν αρχικά όλους τους παραθαλάσσιους οικισμούς τής υπό μελέτη περιοχής, που αριθμούν άνω των 50 σπιτιών ο καθένας, ορίζοντας μία «οικιστική πύκνωση» σε μία απόσταση 3 χιλιομέτρων από την ακτή. Χρησιμοποίησαν όλα τα διαθέσιμα χωρικά δεδομένα, δορυφορικές φωτογραφίες, στοιχεία για τις χρήσεις γης, τη βλάστηση και τις ενδεχόμενες επικίνδυνες φυτεύσεις της περιοχής, το υψόμετρο και το ανάγλυφο, σε συνδυασμό µε πολεοδομικά και ρυμοτομικά κριτήρια. Τα στοιχεία αυτά τα συνέκριναν µε τον δείκτη επικινδυνότητας πυρκαγιάς FHI (Fuel Danger Index), ενώ στους πλέον ευάλωτους οικισμούς διενήργησαν και αυτοψίες.

Στους έξι πλέον ευάλωτους οικισμούς εντοπίστηκε μεγάλο πρόβλημα στα πλάτη των δρόμων, και κυρίως όσων οδηγούν προς τη θάλασσα. Η ψηφιοποίηση και η κατηγοριοποίηση των οδών έδειξαν ότι οι περισσότερες εξ αυτών σε όλους τους οικισμούς είναι από 3 έως 6 μέτρα, πλάτος το οποίο θεωρείται μικρό σε μια έκρυθμη κατάσταση, δεδομένης και της αυξημένης στάθμευσης των επισκεπτών ειδικά τους θερινούς μήνες.

Το Μάτι αποτελεί την πλέον χαρακτηριστική περίπτωση, καθώς δεν καταγράφηκε ούτε ένας δρόμος συνδεδεμένος στο δίκτυο που να οδηγεί απευθείας στην ακτή. Ωστόσο, και στους υπόλοιπους οικισμούς η απευθείας πρόσβαση στη θάλασσα είναι περιορισμένη, καθώς, για παράδειγμα, στο Ζούμπερι καταγράφηκαν πέντε τέτοιες οδοί, ενώ στην Κακιά Θάλασσα τρεις. Και παρά το γεγονός ότι ο πληθυσμός στην Κακιά Θάλασσα είναι μόλις 203 άτομα, η εικόνα αυτή δεν αντανακλά την πραγματικότητα κατά τους θερινούς μήνες. Αντίστοιχα, και στις μικρές οικιστικές πυκνώσεις της Χαμολιάς και της Βραυρώνας η επισκεψιμότητα το καλοκαίρι είναι μεγάλη.

Οι ερευνητές ανέλυσαν, επίσης, την ύπαρξη χώρων συγκέντρωσης (λιμανιών-μαρινών-αλιευτικών καταφυγίων) στην περιοχή. Στη Βραυρώνα, στη Χαμολιά και στην Κακιά Θάλασσα δεν εντοπίστηκε κανένας τέτοιος χώρος, αλλά και στο σύνολο των έξι οικισμών αυτά τα σημεία είναι δυσεύρετα.

Ακόμη, στις δορυφορικές εικόνες που αναλύθηκαν φάνηκε η παντελής έλλειψη αντιπυρικών ζωνών. «∆εν υπάρχει καµία ζώνη που να μπορεί να παίξει αυτόν τον ρόλο και να εμποδίσει ή να φρενάρει μια πιθανή πυρκαγιά. Μόνο στην περίπτωση του οικισμού Ζούμπερι, η λεωφόρος Μαραθώνος, εάν αξιοποιηθεί σωστά, θα μπορούσε να παίξει ρόλο αντιπυρικής ζώνης, δεδομένου ότι είναι δρόμος 14-15 μέτρων» αναφέρει η έρευνα.

Το θετικό για τους οικισμούς που ερευνήθηκαν είναι ότι σε μεγάλο ποσοστό τα υλικά δόμησης είναι μπετόν και κεραμίδια, τα οποία δεν θεωρούνται ιδιαίτερα εύφλεκτα υλικά. Ωστόσο, η εναλλαγή των υφών στις ακτογραμμές των ευάλωτων οικισμών εμφανίζει περιοχές ή τµήματα περιοχών µε ιδιαίτερα κρημνώδεις ακτογραμμές, «συνθήκη η οποία μπορεί να αποβεί θανατηφόρα σε περίπτωση πυρκαγιάς και προσπάθειας διαφυγής προς τη θάλασσα», όπως σημειώνει η έρευνα.

Τι προτείνουν οι ερευνητές

Για τις συγκεκριμένες περιοχές, με εξαίρεση το Μάτι που έχει καεί σχεδόν ολοσχερώς, οι μελετητές κάνουν προτάσεις για παρεμβάσεις.

Στο επίπεδο της προστασίας προτείνεται:

1. Η δημιουργία αντιπυρικών ζωνών μέσα στο δάσος και στους οικισμούς.

2. Η αφαίρεση των περιφράξεων που εμποδίζουν την πρόσβαση στις ακτές.

3. Η διαπλάτυνση των δρόμων.

4. Η ύπαρξη σαφών και συνεχόμενων πινακίδων για απαγόρευση της στάθμευσης σε δρόμους που θεωρούνται κρίσιμοι σε περιπτώσεις ανάγκης διαφυγής.

5. Οι διανοίξεις δρόμων ώστε να προσφέρουν πρόσβαση προς τη θάλασσα και η κατάρτιση συγκεκριμένου σχεδίου διαφυγής µε δυνατότητα επιστράτευσης όλων των πλωτών μέσων που είναι διαθέσιμα στις απειλούμενες περιοχές και πέριξ αυτών.

6. Η συντήρηση και η βελτίωση του δικτύου δασικών δρόμων.

7. Η δημιουργία χώρων στάθμευσης.

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