Νέα μελέτη: Στην Ελλάδα αυτοκτονούν πολύ περισσότεροι άντρες – Τι δείχνουν τα στοιχεία

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συνολικός αριθμός θανάτων από αυτοκτονία στη Γη αυξήθηκε κατά 6,7% μεταξύ 1990-2016, φθάνοντας τους 817.000 ετησίως, περίπου το 1,5% των συνολικών θανάτων, σύμφωνα με μια νέα επιστημονική μελέτη.

Μια ενθαρρυντική πάντως εξέλιξη, σύμφωνα με τους ερευνητές, είναι ότι αν γίνει προσαρμογή των στατιστικών στοιχείων με βάση την ηλικία (το ποσοστό των θανάτων ανά 100.000 άτομα επηρεάζεται από τις αλλαγές στην ηλικιακή κατανομή αυτών των ατόμων), τότε η παγκόσμια θνησιμότητα από αυτοκτονίες εμφανίζει μείωση κατά 33% μεταξύ 1990-2016.

Η έρευνα για 195 χώρες, που δημοσιεύθηκε στο βρετανικό ιατρικό περιοδικό British Medical Journal (BMJ), δείχνει ότι μεγαλύτερα ποσοστά θνησιμότητας από αυτοκτονία εμφανίζουν οι άνδρες (15,6 θάνατοι ανά 100.000) σε σχέση με τις γυναίκες (επτά θάνατοι ανά 100.000), με εξαίρεση την ηλικιακή ομάδα των 15-19 ετών, στην οποία οι αυτοκτονίες γυναικών είναι περισσότερες.

Η Ελλάδα είναι ανάμεσα στις χώρες με τα χαμηλότερα ποσοστά αυτοκτονιών γυναικών στον κόσμο. Με 1,2 θανάτους ανά 100.000 το 2016, εμφανίζεται να έχει το τέταρτο χαμηλότερο ποσοστό μετά τη Συρία, το Ομάν και την Τζαμάικα.

Το ποσοστό αυτοκτονιών μεταξύ των ανδρών στην Ελλάδα το 2016 ήταν 6,4 ανά 100.000, δηλαδή περίπου πενταπλάσιο έναντι των γυναικών. Το ποσοστό αυτοκτονιών και για τα δύο φύλα στη χώρα μας το 2016 ήταν 3,7 ανά 100.000 και εμφανίζει μείωση κατά 3,9% μεταξύ 1990-2016 (αφορά στοιχεία προσαρμοσμένα με βάση τις ηλικιακές μεταβολές διαχρονικά).

Μεγαλύτερα ποσοστά αυτοκτονιών διεθνώς έχουν οι νέοι και οι άνθρωποι τρίτης ηλικίας από ό,τι οι άνθρωποι μέσης ηλικίας. Γενικότερα, τα ποσοστά αυτοκτονιών στο γενικό πληθυσμό διαφέρουν σημαντικά από χώρα σε χώρα, αλλά ο Παγκόσμιος Οργανισμός Υγείας θεωρεί ότι πρόκειται για ένα ανησυχητικό πρόβλημα δημόσιας υγείας, γι’ αυτό έχει θέσει ως στόχο της μείωση του αριθμού τους διεθνώς κατά το ένα τρίτο έως το 2030.

Η αυτοκτονία είναι ανάμεσα στις δέκα κυριότερες αιτίες θανάτου στην ανατολική Ευρώπη (τέταρτη αιτία θανάτου), στην κεντρική Ευρώπη, στην περιοχή Ασίας-Ειρηνικού, στην Αυστραλασία και στη Βόρεια Αμερική. Στην Ευρώπη και στις δυτικές χώρες υπάρχει στενή σχέση ανάμεσα στις ψυχικές παθήσεις και στην αυτοκτονία, αλλά δεν συμβαίνει το ίδιο στην Ασία.

Τα μεγαλύτερα ποσοστά αυτοκτονιών καταγράφηκαν στο Λεσότο της Αφρικής (39 θάνατοι ανά 100.000), στη Λιθουανία (31 ανά 100.000), στη Ρωσία (30,6 ανά 100.000) και στη Ζιμπάμπουε (27,8 ανά 100.000). Οι θάνατοι από αυτοκτονίες στην Κίνα και στην Ινδία, τις δύο πολυπληθέστερες χώρες του κόσμου, αποτελούν σχεδόν τις μισές (44%) του συνολικού αριθμού παγκοσμίως, αλλά μειώνονται σταδιακά.

Οι ερευνητές επισήμαναν πάντως ότι οι πραγματικοί αριθμοί αυτοκτονιών μπορεί να είναι μεγαλύτεροι, καθώς ορισμένες χώρες όπου η αυτοκτονία θεωρείται απαγορευμένη για θρησκευτικούς και πολιτισμικούς λόγους, συχνά κατατάσσουν τους θανάτους από αυτοκτονία ως διαφορετικής αιτιολογίας.

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