Ο εγκέφαλος χρειάζεται από 100 έως 300 χιλιοστά του δευτερολέπτου για να αναγνωρίσει έναν οικείο ήχο

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Ο ανθρώπινος εγκέφαλος μπορεί να αναγνωρίσει έναν οικείο ήχο μέσα σε 100 έως 300 χιλιοστά του δευτερολέπτου, σύμφωνα με νέα έρευνα που διεξήγε το Πανεπιστήμιο UCL του Λονδίνου.

Η συγκεκριμένη μελέτη, που δημοσιεύτηκε στην επιστημονική επιθεώρηση “Scientific Reports”, επιδίωξε να διερευνήσει πόσο γρήγορα το μυαλό ανταποκρίνεται σε μια γνωστή μουσική μελωδία καθώς και τις εγκεφαλικές διεργασίες που επιτρέπουν αυτή την απόκριση.

Οι ερευνητές μελέτησαν αυτό το ζήτημα μέσα από ένα παιχνίδι που λέγεται “Ονομάστε αυτή τη μελωδία” (“Name that tune”), όπου οι διαγωνιζόμενοι καλούνται να αναγνωρίσουν ένα μουσικό κομμάτι λίγα δευτερόλεπτα αφού αυτό ξεκινήσει να παίζει. Το δείγμα αποτελείτο από πέντε άντρες και πέντε γυναίκες, ο καθένας από τους οποίους επέλεξε πέντε τραγούδια που του ήταν πολύ γνωστά. Για κάθε συμμετέχοντα οι ερευνητές αντιστοίχισαν ένα γνωστό σε αυτόν τραγούδι με μία παρόμοια μελωδία, η οποία όμως καθαυτή ήταν άγνωστη στο συμμετέχοντα.

Οι συμμετέχοντες άκουγαν παθητικά περίπου 100 δείγματα ήχου (διάρκειας μικρότερης του ενός δευτερολέπτου) από τον γνωστό και τον άγνωστο ήχο, τα οποία παρουσιάζονταν με τυχαία σειρά. Οι ερευνητές χρησιμοποίησαν το ηλεκτροεγκεφαλογράφημα ως τεχνική απεικόνισης της εγκεφαλικής δραστηριότητας, αφού αυτό καταγράφει την ηλεκτρική δραστηριότητα του εγκεφάλου και την κορημετρία (τεχνική μέτρησης της διαμέτρου της κόρης του ματιού, ένδειξη αφύπνισες).

Διαπιστώθηκε ότι οι συμμετέχοντες χρειάζονταν κατά μέσο όρο από 100 έως 300 χιλιοστά του δευτερολέπτου για να αναγνωρίσουν έναν οικείο ήχο, αυτό φάνηκε αφενός από τη διαστολή της κόρης του ματιού των συμμετεχόντων, που δείχνει αυξημένη διέγερση λόγω του οικείου ήχου και αφετέρου από την επακόλουθη φλοιώδη ενεργοποίηση του εγκεφάλου που σχετίζεται με την επαναφορά του γνωστού ήχου από τη μνήμη. Δε φάνηκαν οι ίδιες φυσιολογικές αντιδράσεις στην ομάδα ελέγχου, για την οποία όλοι οι ήχοι ήταν άγνωστοι.

Η Μαρία Τσάιτ, καθηγήτρια του Πανεπιστημίου UCL του Λονδίνου, τόνισε πώς η έρευνα αυτή δείχνει πως οι άνθρωποι αναγνωρίζουν αρκετά γρήγορα τους οικείους ήχους και προσθέτει ότι τα αποτελέσματα αυτής είναι πολύ χρήσιμα για τη δημιουργία πλήθους θεραπευτικών παρεμβάσεων που βασίζονται στη μουσική.

“Για παράδειγμα, υπάρχει αυξανόμενο ενδιαφέρον για την εκμετάλλευση της μουσικής στους ασθενείς με άνοια, σε αυτούς η μνήμη της μουσικής διατηρείται καλά παρά την κατά τα άλλα συστηματική αποτυχία της λειτουργίας των κέντρων μνήμης”, δήλωσε η ίδια.

Πηγή: ΑΠΕ-ΜΠΕ

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