Πλήρης ανατροπή στην αγορά εργασίας: Η μερική απασχόληση γίνεται κυρίαρχη (ΠΙΝΑΚΑΣ)

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Συρρίκνωση της μισθωτής εργασίας με την τυπική μορφή της πλήρους απασχόλησης κατά σχεδόν 500.000 εργαζόμενους και διπλασιασμό της μερικής απασχόλησης, η οποία ενισχύθηκε σημαντικά λαμβάνοντας διαστάσεις μόνιμης εργασίας, διαπιστώνει η έκθεση της ΓΣΕΕ για την ελληνική οικονομία, η οποία παραδόθηκε ήδη στον πρωθυπουργό Αλέξη Τσίπρα και τους πολιτικούς αρχηγούς των κομμάτων και θα παρουσιαστεί, όπως κάθε χρόνο, τον Σεπτέμβριο, κατά τη διάρκεια της Διεθνούς Εκθεσης Θεσσαλονίκης.

Τα ευρήματα της έκθεσης της Συνομοσπονδίας αφορούν την πενταετία 2010-2014 και λαμβάνουν ιδιαίτερη αξία, σύμφωνα με την Καθημερινή, με δεδομένο το γεγονός ότι ανοίγει άμεσα η συζήτηση για νέες παρεμβάσεις στην αγορά εργασίας. Η ΓΣΕΕ, μέσα από την έκθεσή της πάντως, καταδεικνύει ότι η ποιότητα των θέσεων εργασίας συνεχίζει να χειροτερεύει, οι άτυπες και μη ηθελημένες μορφές απασχόλησης αυξάνονται με σημαντικές αρνητικές συνέπειες στο εισόδημα των εργαζομένων, στο ανθρώπινο κεφάλαιο της οικονομίας και στην παραγωγικότητα. Τα εμπειρικά ευρήματα της έκθεσης δείχνουν επίσης ότι υπάρχει υψηλή συσχέτιση μεταξύ των επισφαλών θέσεων εργασίας και της φτώχειας.

Αναλυτικότερα, η ΓΣΕΕ διαπιστώνει συρρίκνωση της μισθωτής εργασίας με την τυπική εργασιακή σχέση κατά 492,3 χιλιάδες μισθωτούς και σε ποσοστό 21,3%, ενώ σχεδόν τα 2/3 της εν λόγω μείωσης αφορούν άνδρες. Η προσωρινή απασχόληση αντίστοιχα μειώθηκε κατά το 1/4 και κατά 82,2 χιλιάδες μισθωτούς, από τους οποίους το 88% αφορούσε συμβάσεις εργασίας πλήρους απασχόλησης (71,8 χιλιάδες), κυρίως γυναικών. Στον αντίποδα αυτών των μεταβολών, έχουμε τον διπλασιασμό σχεδόν των απασχολουμένων με μερική απασχόληση αορίστου διαρκείας (83.250 άτομα και 90%), με τις γυναίκες να συμμετέχουν στην εν λόγω αύξηση σε ποσοστό 57%. Κατά συνέπεια, η μερική απασχόληση με τη μορφή της μόνιμης εργασίας (αορίστου διαρκείας) ενισχύθηκε σημαντικά κατά τη διάρκεια της οικονομικής κρίσης, αντικαθιστώντας πλέον την απασχόληση των συμβασιούχων (δηλαδή την προσωρινή απασχόληση).

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Οι παραπάνω μεταβολές των μισθωτών επηρέασαν ιδιαίτερα τον ιδιωτικό τομέα της οικονομίας, καθώς ο ευρύτερος δημόσιος τομέας συμμετέχει σε αναλογία κατά 34% στη συρρίκνωση της τυπικής μισθωτής εργασιακής σχέσης και κατά 27,5% στη μείωση της προσωρινής απασχόλησης. Η αύξηση όμως των μερικώς απασχολουμένων αορίστου διαρκείας αφορά αποκλειστικά τους μισθωτούς του ιδιωτικού τομέα της οικονομίας (82.960 άτομα). Οι προαναφερόμενες εξελίξεις, και κυρίως οι μειώσεις που υπέστησαν οι κατηγορίες της μισθωτής εργασίας την περίοδο 2010-2013, είναι πολύ μεγαλύτερες, καθώς το τελευταίο έτος η μισθωτή εργασία σημείωσε αύξηση κατά 51.200 μισθωτούς, κυρίως με τη μορφή της προσωρινής απασχόλησης. Κατά την περίοδο 2010-2013, οι μισθωτές γυναίκες συμμετείχαν σε αναλογία 40% στη συρρίκνωση της τυπικής μισθωτής εργασιακής σχέσης, πάνω από το ήμισυ (52,5%) στη μείωση των προσωρινά απασχολουμένων και κατά 62% στην αύξηση των μερικώς απασχολουμένων αορίστου διαρκείας (οι αντίστοιχες συνολικές μεταβολές της περιόδου 2010-2013 ήταν 475.900, 119.400 και 52.850). Την ίδια περίοδο ο ευρύτερος δημόσιος τομέας συμμετείχε σε αναλογία κατά 26% στη συρρίκνωση της τυπικής μισθωτής εργασιακής σχέσης και κατά 22% στη μείωση της προσωρινής απασχόλησης. Η αύξηση κατά το τελευταίο έτος οφείλεται αποκλειστικά στον ιδιωτικό τομέα της οικονομίας, καθώς η μισθωτή εργασία στον ευρύτερο δημόσιο τομέα συνέχισε να έχει φθίνουσα πορεία.

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