CETA: Ο Δούρειος Ίππος των ΗΠΑ

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Μεγάλη συζήτηση σε Διεθνές αλλά και σε Ευρωπαϊκό επίπεδο έχουν προκαλέσει το τελευταίο διάστημα οι αναφορές σχετικά με την συμφωνία ΤΤΙP, μεταξύ των ΗΠΑ και της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Παρ’ όλο που με προηγούμενο άρθρο μου προσπάθησα να σκιαγραφήσω το τι μέλει γενέσθαι με αυτήν την προσπάθεια, σήμερα κάνοντας μια μικρή έρευνα προσπάθησα να συνδέσω τα κομμάτια σε μια υπόθεση που εξ’ όψεως δείχνει αθώα, αλλά εγκυμονεί πολλούς κινδύνους.

Είναι ιδιαίτερα περίεργο το γεγονός πως οι ΗΠΑ δεν φαίνεται να ενδιαφέρονται ιδιαίτερα για την ΤΤΙP. Ναι ξέρω η αναφορά αυτή ενδεχομένως να σας σοκάρει, αλλά θα προσπαθήσω ευθύς αμέσως να εξηγήσω το σκεπτικό μου. Η Αμερική δεν δείχνει να ενδιαφέρεται εναγωνίως (παρά μόνο τεχνηέντως) για την ΤΤΙP, διότι έχει στρέψει όλα της τα μέσα, τις ενέργειες και την προσοχή της για την επίτευξη συμφωνίας για την πολύ λιγότερη γνωστή ομοειδή της την CETA.

Ο λόγος; Μα φυσικά γιατί εάν ξεπεραστεί ο σκόπελος της Βαλονίας (που εν μέρει ξεπεράστηκε), θα υπάρχει και επισήμως ένας τρόπος υιοθέτησης μιας δικαστικής οδού η οποία ενδεχομένως να εγείρει αρκετά σημαντικά ζητήματα στο μέλλον. Ακόμη έχει γίνει μια ιδιαίτερα φιλόδοξη προσπάθεια εκ μέρους της Αμερικής στο να παρουσιαστούν τα πιθανά οφέλη αυτής της συμφωνίας τόσο σε ευρωπαϊκό επίπεδο όσο και σε Διεθνές. Αυτό όμως το οποίο δεν έχει πάρει σημαντικές διαστάσεις στον δημόσιο λόγο είναι το γεγονός της “δημιουργίας ιδιωτικού–διαιτητικού δικαστηρίου” το οποίο θα παρακάμπτει το Ευρωπαϊκό δίκαιο.

Η παγίδα

Ο κίνδυνος που θα υπάρξει, όταν επικυρωθεί και επισήμως η CETΑ, έγκειται στο γεγονός πως κάθε αμερικανικός όμιλος ο οποίος διατηρεί ένα μικρό υποκατάστημα στον Καναδά, μπορεί να καταθέτει αγωγή εναντίον οποιουδήποτε ευρωπαϊκού κράτους που θεωρεί πως βλάπτει τα συμφέροντα του στην βάση του “ιδιωτικού διαιτητικού δικαστηρίου” που θα είναι αρμόδιο για την εκδίκαση της υπόθεσης.

Αντιστρόφως ανάλογα το δικαίωμα αυτό θα μπορεί να το ασκήσει και κάθε καναδική εταιρεία αφού ο Καναδάς αποτελεί ένα από τα δύο κύρια συμβαλλόμενα μέρη της συμφωνίας.

Με απλά λόγια, επειδή σχεδόν όλες οι αμερικανικές πολυεθνικές έχουν κάποια θυγατρική στον Καναδά ή μπορούν να ιδρύσουν όταν το κρίνουν σκόπιμο, τότε θα δύνανται να απολαμβάνουν όλα τα προνόμια και τα δικαιώματα που θα τους προσφέρει η CETA στην Ευρώπη, καταθέτοντας αγωγές εναντίον κρατών, δήμων και πόλεων, όταν θεωρούν πως οι αποφάσεις τους τις ζημιώνουν.

Παραδείγματα

Σε αυτό το σημείο θεωρώ χρήσιμο το να αναφέρω και κάποια παραδείγματα τα οποία βεβαιώνουν τον συλλογισμό μου. Εάν υπερισχύσει η συλλογιστική μου αναφορά στις μελλοντικές ενέργειες εκ μέρους των ΗΠΑ, τότε και, όπως είναι νόμιμο και φυσικό, και ο Καναδάς θα έχει δικαιώματα νομικής φύσεως πάνω στην συμφωνία.

Με αυτό το πλαίσιο, θα μπορούσε κάθε καναδικός επιχειρηματικός συνεταιρισμός η επιχείρηση, όπως η εταιρεία “Ελληνικός Χρυσός” (θυγατρική της Εldorado Gold) να προεξοφλεί πως η Ελληνική Κυβέρνηση της προξενεί ζημίες πχ Σκουριές και να έχει την de facto δυνατότητα να την καταγγείλει σε κάποιο ιδιωτικό δικαστήριο ζητώντας αποζημίωση για διαφυγόντα κέρδη ή ηθική βλάβη.

Ένα άλλο παράδειγμα θα μπορούσαν να είναι οι εταιρείες μεταλλαγμένων, οι οποίες λόγω των απαγορευτικών διατάξεων της ΕΕ δεν θα μπορούσαν να πουλήσουν τα προϊόντα τους στην ευρωπαϊκή επικράτεια. Αυτό θα είχε ως αποτέλεσμα, η εκάστοτε εταιρεία να ζητήσει μία αποζημίωση από τις ευρωπαϊκές κυβερνήσεις μέσω της θυγατρικής της στον Καναδά και αυτή με την σειρά της σε κάποιο ιδιωτικό δικαστήριο.

Συμπέρασμα

Αυτό το οποίο μπορεί να εξαχθεί ως απότοκο αυτής της μικρής συλλογιστικής σκέψης, η οποία όμως στηρίζεται σε μικρά και ρεαλιστικά ενδεχόμενα βήματα που μπορούν να συμβούν, είναι το γεγονός πως η υπογραφή και επικύρωση της CETA από την ΕΕ και τον Καναδά, χωρίς την ΤΤΙP μεταξύ ΕΕ-ΗΠΑ, θα αποτελούσε ένα καταστροφικό γεγονός. Θα ήταν καταστροφικό τόσο για την Ευρώπη και τα έθνη κράτη της όσο και για τα συμφέροντα των ευρωπαϊκών πολυεθνικών και επιχειρήσεων, διότι με αυτόν τον τρόπο θα επαληθευόταν και στην πράξη πως η ΤΤΙP δεν είναι τίποτα περισσότερο από ένας Δούρειος Ίππος των ΗΠΑ με στόχο να πετύχουν μία διπλή νίκη, αφενός την μη υπογραφή της λόγω των αντιδράσεων που αυτή εγείρει και αφετέρου με την πλήρη απολαβή των θετικών διατάξεων της CETA, η οποία θα τους εξασφαλίζει τεράστια πλεονεκτήματα χωρίς κανένα μειονέκτημα.

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