Πώς ένας άγνωστος κερδίζει την εμπιστοσύνη μας-Αποκαλυπτική έρευνα

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Η εμπιστοσύνη μας απέναντι στους ξένους επηρεάζεται σε σημαντικό βαθμό από το πόσο μοιάζουν με άλλους ανθρώπους που γνωρίζουμε και είναι αξιόπιστοι.

Αυτό αποκαλύπτει μια νέα επιστημονική έρευνα αμερικανών ψυχολόγων, σύμφωνα με την οποία όλοι ασυναίσθητα τείνουμε να αξιολογούμε την αξιοπιστία ενός αγνώστου με βάση το πόσο μοιάζει με κάποιον που ξέρουμε. Αν ο άγνωστος μας θυμίζει κάποιον αναξιόπιστο που ήδη γνωρίζουμε, τόσο δεν εμπιστευόμαστε ούτε τον ξένο.

Οι ερευνητές, με επικεφαλής την καθηγήτρια ψυχολογίας Ελίζαμπεθ Φελπς του Τμήματος Ψυχολογίας του Πανεπιστημίου της Νέας Υόρκης, που έκαναν τη σχετική δημοσίευση στο περιοδικό της Εθνικής Ακαδημίας Επιστημών των ΗΠΑ (PNAS), πραγματοποίησαν μια σειρά πειραμάτων με εθελοντές, οι οποίοι, μεταξύ άλλων, κλήθηκαν να εμπιστευθούν τα χρήματά τους σε ένα ξένο.

Διαπιστώθηκε ότι όσο περισσότερο ο ξένος θύμιζε κάποιον αξιόπιστο γνωστό, τόσο μεγάλωνε η εμπιστοσύνη στο πρόσωπό του. Αυτό, κατά τους ερευνητές, δείχνει πόσο ο εγκέφαλος παίρνει αποφάσεις και κάνει αξιολογικές κρίσεις, βασιζόμενος στις προηγούμενες εμπειρίες του και στην μάθηση του παρελθόντος – κάτι που όμως δεν αποτελεί εγγύηση ορθότητας για το μέλλον (επειδή ο ξένος μπορεί να είναι ένας απολύτως αξιόπιστος άνθρωπος παρόλο που μας θυμίζει κάποιον πλήρως αναξιόπιστο).

«Η μελέτη μας αποκαλύπτει ότι δεν εμπιστευόμαστε τους ξένους ακόμη κι αν μοιάζουν μόνο αμυδρά με κάποιον που στο παρελθόν έχουμε συσχετίσει με ανήθικη συμπεριφορά» δήλωσε ο επίκουρος καθηγητής ψυχολογίας του Πανεπιστημίου Μπράουν Όριελ Φέλντμανχολ.

«Παίρνουμε αποφάσεις για τη φήμη ενός ξένου χωρίς να έχουμε άμεσες ή έμμεσες πληροφορίες γι’ αυτόν, βασισμένοι μόνο στην ομοιότητά του με άλλους που έχουμε συναντήσει κάποτε. Ο εγκέφαλός μας χρησιμοποιεί ένα μηχανισμό μάθησης με τον οποίο κωδικοποιεί τις ηθικές πληροφορίες από παρελθούσες εμπειρίες, για να καθοδηγήσει τις μελλοντικές επιλογές μας» πρόσθεσε η Φελπς.

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173 απαντήσεις στο “Πώς ένας άγνωστος κερδίζει την εμπιστοσύνη μας-Αποκαλυπτική έρευνα”

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