Στα 825 δισ. ευρώ η φοροδιαφυγή στην Ε.Ε. – Ποια θέση έχει η Ελλάδα

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Από την 1η Ιανουαρίου έχει τεθεί σε ισχύ η οδηγία της ΕΕ για τη φοροδιαφυγή που αποσκοπεί στην ενίσχυση των μέτρων για την πάταξη της οικονομικής αυτής απάτης, που στοιχίζει πανευρωπαϊκά 825 δισ. ευρώ κάθε χρόνο. Η διαδικασία αυτή που έχουν δρομολογήσει οι Βρυξέλλες, από το 2012, στόχο έχει να ενισχυθούν τα εθνικά μέτρα και με την τελευταία της οδηγία εστιάζει στις «επιθετικές» τακτικές ορισμένων πολυεθνικών για να αποφύγουν να πληρώνουν τους αναλογούντες φόρους τους, όπως τονίζεται από πηγές της ΕΕ.

Η ομάδα της Προοδευτικής Συμμαχίας των Σοσιαλιστών και Δημοκρατών (πρώην Ευρωπαϊκό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα) στο Ευρωκοινοβούλιο, εκτός από τα στοιχεία που κατέθεσε πρόσφατα για το ύψος της φοροδιαφυγής (τα 825 δισ. ευρώ), εμφάνισε επίσης και αναλυτικά στοιχεία για τις επιμέρους χώρες των 28, που συχνά προκαλούν έκπληξη.

Επιπλέον, στην έκθεση του καθηγητή στο Πανεπιστήμιο του Λονδίνου, του Ρίτσαρντ Μέρφι, περιλαμβάνονται τα επίσημα στοιχεία των φορολογικών υπηρεσιών της ΕΕ για το διάστημα 2015-16. Το συμπέρασμα της έκθεσης είναι πως μεγαλύτερη φοροδιαφυγή παρουσιάζεται στις χώρες εκείνες με το μεγαλύτερο φορολογικό βάρος –που αντιπροσωπεύει το ποσοστό των φόρων έναντι του εισοδήματος. Μολαταύτα, η τάση αυτή δεν επαληθεύεται και στην περίπτωση απόδοσης του ΦΠΑ, εξόν από ορισμένες εξαιρέσεις.

Στο ίδιο κείμενο επαναλαμβάνεται και η διαπίστωση της Transparency International (Διεθνούς Διαφάνειας) πως στη Νότια και Ανατολική Ευρώπη διαπιστώνονται τα μεγαλύτερα ποσοστά φοροδιαφυγής κατά κεφαλήν σε σχέση με τις Σκανδιναβικές και τις χώρες της Κεντρικής Ευρώπης. Στις χώρες της νοτιοανατολικής Ευρώπης επίσης παρατηρούνται οι εξαιρέσεις της μη απόδοσης ΦΠΑ, με επικεφαλής τη Ρουμανία (35,9%), την Ελλάδα (29,2%), την Ιταλία (25,9%), τη Σλοβακία (25,9%), τη Λιθουανία και την Ουγγαρία (13,3%). Στον αντίποδα το Λουξεμβούργο (0,8%) και η Σουηδία (1%).

Σύμφωνα με τον Μέρφι, η μελέτη του λαμβάνει υπόψη μόνον τα ποσοστά της φοροδιαφυγής, και όχι την φοροαποφυγή, δηλαδή την προσφυγή σε νομότυπες εξαιρέσεις που επιτρέπουν στις μεγάλες εταιρείες και μεγαλοεισοδηματίες να πληρώνουν λιγότερους φόρους και να εξοικονομούν έτσι μεταξύ 50 έως 190 δισ. ευρώ.

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