Τα «μαγικά μανιτάρια» δοκιμάστηκαν κατά της κατάθλιψης αφήνοντας υποσχέσεις

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Ασθενείς με χρόνια σοβαρή κατάθλιψη που πήραν ψιλοκυβίνη, τη βασική δραστική ουσία των «μαγικών μανιταριών» – ενός γνωστού ψυχεδελικού- εμφάνισαν μειωμένα συμπτώματα επί αρκετές εβδομάδες, χάρη σε μια «επανεκκίνηση» που έγινε στον εγκέφαλό τους.

Αυτό ανακοίνωσαν βρετανοί επιστήμονες, με επικεφαλής τον δρα Ρόμπιν Κάρχαρτ-Χάρις, επικεφαλής του τμήματος ψυδελεχικών ερευνών του Imperial College του Λονδίνου, οι οποίοι έκαναν τη σχετική δημοσίευση στο περιοδικό «Scientific Reports».

Όπως είπαν, αν και έγινε σε μικρό αριθμό ανθρώπων (20) και χωρίς την ύπαρξη παράλληλης ομάδας ελέγχου με ψευδοφάρμακο (πλασίμπο) για λόγους σύγκρισης, η κλινική δοκιμή άφησε πολλές υποσχέσεις, καθώς στο παρελθόν οι ασθενείς είχαν δοκιμάσει χωρίς επιτυχία κάθε άλλη συμβατική θεραπεία. Τουλάχιστον οι μισοί ασθενείς ένιωσαν σημαντική υποχώρηση της κατάθλιψής τους.

Η αντικαταθλιπτική δράση της ψιλοκυβίνης φάνηκε να διαρκεί έως πέντε εβδομάδες μετά από τη χορήγησή της (δύο δόσεις των 10 και 25 μιλιγκράμ με διαφορά μιας εβδομάδας η δεύτερη από την πρώτη). Οι ερευνητές εκτιμούν ότι -όπως γίνεται επανεκκίνηση σε έναν υπολογιστή- η εν λόγω ψυχεδελική ουσία «κάνει καινούρια» τα εγκεφαλικά νευρωνικά κυκλώματα που εμπλέκονται στην κατάθλιψη.

Η σύγκριση εικόνων του εγκεφάλου με λειτουργική μαγνητική τομογραφία (fMRI) πριν και μετά τη χορήγηση της ψιλοκυβίνης έδειξε ορατές αλλαγές στην εγκεφαλική δραστηριότητα, οι οποίες σχετίζονταν με αισθητή και μακρόχρονη μείωση των συμπτωμάτων της κατάθλιψης. Μεταξύ άλλων, υπήρξε κατευναστική επίπτωση και μειωμένη δραστηριότητα στη ζωτική περιοχή της αμυγδαλής του εγκεφάλου, η οποία παίζει ρόλο-κλειδί στη συναισθηματική διέγερση, στο στρες και στο φόβο.

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