Τάφος – καρμπόν 250 μέτρα από τον Τύμβο Καστά

PSIFIDOT-ARXAIO
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Ένα από τα ερμηνευτικά κλειδιά για την χρονική ακολουθία των γεγονότων τα οποία διαμόρφωσαν την τελική εικόνα του μνημείου, όπως αυτό ανευρέθηκε …

από την κα Κατερίνα Περιστέρη, ίσως αποτελεί ένας γειτονικός τάφος. Ακριβώς όπως είναι αποκαλύφθηκε ο καθαυτό ταφικός χώρος στο βάθος του τρίτου θαλάμου στον Τύμβο Καστά, σε ελάχιστη απόσταση από την πολυσυζητημένη ανασκαφή, υπάρχει ένας άλλος, σχεδόν πανομοιότυπος κιβωτιόσχημος μακεδονικός τάφος. Περίπου τριακόσια μέτρα μακριά από το λόφο, σε παλαιότερη αρχαιολογική έρευνα, έχει αποκαλυφθεί ο λεγόμενος «Τάφος ΙΙΙ» της Αμφίπολης. Στον προθάλαμό του υπάρχει βοτσαλωτό μωσαϊκό με ρόμβους, το οποίο μοιάζει αρκετά με εκείνο που ήρθε στο φως κατά το πρώτο στάδιο της ανασκαφής στον Τύμβο Καστά.

TafosIII_01b
Ο προθάλαμος του Τάφου III της Αμφίπολης. Διακρίνεται το μωσαϊκό με τους ρόμβους

Ο νεκρικός θάλαμος του Τάφου III έχει χρωματιστό δάπεδο και είναι σαφές ότι σε δεύτερη φάση μετά από την αρχική ταφή, υπήρξε θραύση και διάλυση του πατώματος προκειμένου να τοποθετηθεί ένας επιπλέον νεκρός. Κατόπιν, κτίστηκε κιβωτιόσχημος τάφος, ο οποίος, μάλιστα, φέρει και τοιχογραφίες. Έξω από τον τάφο βρεθηκε ανθέμιο από ανθεμωτή επιτύμβια στήλη του τέλους του 4ου αι. π.Χ, βάσει της οποίας έγινε και η χρονολόγηση του Τάφου ΙΙΙ.

TafosIII_02
Ο κυρίως ταφικός θάλαμος, με τον πρόσθετο, υπόγειο χώρο

Όπως γράφει ο επίσημος αρχαιολογικός οδηγός της Αμφίπολης, τον οποίον επιμελήθηκε ο βασικός ανασκαφέας της Αμφίπολης, Δημήτρης Λαζαρίδης και έως σήμερα πωλείται στην είσοδο του τοπικού μουσείου «στη θέση αυτή εκτεταμένες έρευνες αποκάλυψαν κατά το 1960 τον τρίτο από τους αξιόλογους τάφους της Αμφιπόλεως μακεδονικού τύπου, δυστυχώς όμως συλημένο και εν μέρει κατεστραμμένο. Είναι λαξευμένος στο μαλακό βράχο, του οποίου τα τοιχώματα κάλυπτε τοίχος από μεγάλες πλίνθους πωρολίθου. Σώζονται μόνο οι κατώτεροι δόμοι του τοίχου καλυμμένοι με κονιάματα που μιμούνται ορθομαρμαρώσεις. Αποτελείται από προθάλαμο και νεκρικό θάλαμο και έχει ολικό μήκος 9 και πλάτος 3,07 μ. Το δάπεδο του προθαλάμου φέρει ψηφιδωτό με διακόσμηση πολύχρωμων ρόμβων, ενώ το δάπεδο του θαλάμου χωρίζεται σε τρεις επιμήκεις ζώνες, με βαθύ ερυθρό χρώμα οι πλάγιες και κίτρινο η μεσαία.

TafosIII_03
Τμήμα της τοιχογραφίας από τον Τάφο III

Το δάπεδο της βόρειας ζώνης είχε σπάσει με σκοπό την κατασκευή και δεύτερου τάφου, εκτός του αρχικού, που βρίσκεται στο βάθος του νεκρικού θαλάμου. Οι δύο κιβωτιόσχημοι αυτοί τάφοι βρέθηκαν συλημένοι. Τα τοιχώματα και των δύο καλύπτονται από κονιάματα με ζωηρά χρώματα -ερυθρό, κίτρινο, μαύρο, φαιό, λευκό- ο ένας δε έχει ψηλά κοσμοφόρο ταινία με διακόσμηση από βλαστούς, άνθη, πουλιά, αγγεία, κάτοπτρο κτλ. Οι τοιχογραφίες και τα ψηφιδωτά αποτοιχίσθηκαν και μεταφέρθηκαν στο Μουσείο Καβάλας και στο νεότευκτο Μουσείο της Αμφιπόλεως.

<< Κατά την ανασκαφή, μπροστά στην είσοδο του νεκρικού θαλάμου βρέθηκε η επίστεψη μιας μεγάλης επιτύμβιας στήλης, ύψους 1,08 μ., με διακόσμηση ωραίου μαρμάρινου ανθεμίου. Η βάση του κοσμείται με διπλή σειρά φύλλων άκανθας, απ' όπου βγαίνουν βλαστεί που ελίσσονται στα πλάγια. Ο τάφος χρονολογείται στον 3ο αι. π.Χ.>>

TafosIII_04
Περίτεχνο διακοσμητικό ανάγλυφο, κομμάτι από την επίστεψη της επιτύμβιας στήλης της εισόδου

Ο Λαζαρίδης χρονολόγησε τον Τάφο III στον 3ο π.Χ. αιώνα, όμως ο Dieter Salzmann, Γερμανός αρχαιολόγος που θεωρείται αυθεντία στα αρχαία ψηφιδωτά, τοποθέτησε τον Τάφο στο τελευταίο τέταρτο του 4ου π.Χ. αιώνα, στην ίδια σχεδόν εποχή κατά την οποίαν κατασκευάστηκε, τουλάχιστον στην πρώτη του φάση, ο Τύμβος Καστά.

Οι ομοιότητες ανάμεσα στα δύο μνημεία συνιστούν αυτό που οι αρχαιολόγοι χαρακτηρίζουν ως «παράλληλο», δηλαδή την αντιστοιχία, η οποία συχνά επιβεβαιώνει ή ενισχύει τις ενδείξεις για την χρονολόγηση ενός ευρήματος. Και στην περίπτωση της Αμφίπολης, ίσως δεν είναι μόνο όσα πρόκειται να αποκαλυφθούν στην επόμενη φάση της ανασκαφής, αλλά και όσα ήδη είναι γνωστά, τα οποία συνηγορούν στο ότι ο Τύμβος Καστά δεν ήταν ποτέ μόνος.

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