To υγροποιημένο αέριο, οι ΗΠΑ και η ενεργειακή στρατηγική της Ε.Ε

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Ραγδαίες είναι οι αλλαγές που συντελούνται στην ενεργειακή στρατηγική της Ευρώπης. Η κρίση στην Ουκρανία ενεργοποίησε την πολιτική της δημιουργίας της Ενεργειακής Ένωσης με κεντρικό στόχο την διαφοροποίηση των πηγών προμήθειας φυσικού αερίου και τη μείωση της εξάρτησης από τη Ρωσία.

Στο πλαίσιο αυτό, ο ρόλος των ΗΠΑ στη διαμόρφωση της ευρωπαϊκής ενεργειακής στρατηγικής αυξάνεται διαρκώς. Ο  τομέας της  ενέργειας περιλαμβάνεται στις διαπραγματεύσεις που διεξάγουν  Βρυξέλλες  και Ουάσινγκτον για τη νέα εμπορική και επενδυτική συμφωνία, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (Διατλαντική Εμπορική και Επενδυτική Συνεργασία). Στο πλαίσιο αυτό συζητείται και το εμπόριο φυσικού αερίου με έμφαση στο υγροποιημένο αέριο (LNG) , το οποίο διαθέτουν οι ΗΠΑ σε μεγάλες ποσότητες ειδικά μετά την «επανάσταση του σχιστόλιθου».

Πρόσφατα ο Ευρωπαίος Επίτροπος για την Ενέργεια Μιγκουέλ Αρίας Κανιέτε δήλωσε ότι το δεύτερο εξάμηνο του 2016 η Κομισιόν θα παρουσιάσει  ολοκληρωμένη στρατηγική για την εκμετάλλευση του LNG, καθώς αναμένεται να αυξηθούν σημαντικά οι εισαγωγές υγροποιημένου αερίου στην Ευρώπη. «Πιστεύουμε ότι υπάρχει μία πραγματική ευκαιρία με το LNG» δήλωσε ο κ. Κανιέτε , προσθέτοντας ότι προκειμένου να ανοίξει ο δρόμος για αυξημένες εισαγωγές LNG, θα πρέπει να ενισχυθούν οι διασυνδέσεις μεταξύ των χωρών. Εκτίμησε επίσης ότι με τις ποσότητες LNG που διακινούνται στην παγκόσμια αγορά, οι τιμές του, θα γίνουν ανταγωνιστικές σε σχέση με αέριο των αγωγών και μάλιστα εντός του 2016 θα υπάρξει σύγκλιση.

Ο κ. Κανιέτε έδωσε βάρος στην αξιοποίηση των ανεκμετάλλευτων αποθεμάτων αερίου, συμβατικού και μη, στην Αλγερία και αναφέρθηκε στις εξαγωγές αερίου από τις ΗΠΑ και την Αυστραλία.

Μεταξύ των διασυνδέσεων που θα επιτρέψουν την αύξηση της χρήσης του LNG, είναι και ο Vertical Corridor (Κάθετος Διάδρομος), που θα ξεκινά από την Ελλάδα με τον διασυνδετήριο αγωγό Ελλάδας- Βουλγαρίας (IGB), και θα καταλήγει μέσω της διασύνδεσης υφιστάμενων αγωγών έως την Ουγγαρία. Ο IGB θα μπορεί να τροφοδοτηθεί με αέριο από το τερματικό LNG της Ρεβυθούσας και τον αγωγό TAP, που θα μεταφέρει αζέρικο αέριο, αλλά και ενδεχομένως από άλλες πηγές.

Άλλωστε η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή έχει προγραμματίσει ήδη τη διοργάνωση επιχειρηματικού φόρουμ στις αρχές του 2016 για τα επενδυτικά εμπόδια στην εξόρυξη αερίου στην Αλγερία, αλλά και την έναρξη ενεργειακού διαλόγου σε υψηλό επίπεδο με την Τουρκία τον Οκτώβριο.

Το παζλ συμπληρώνει  η περαιτέρω σύσφιξη των ενεργειακών σχέσεων με τη Νορβηγία, η οποία παίζει σημαντικό ρόλο στην πολιτική για τη διαφοροποίηση των πηγών προμήθειας αερίου. Είναι χαρακτηριστικό ότι τον Μάιο του  2014 η Νορβηγία αναδείχθηκε στον  μεγαλύτερο προμηθευτή αερίου  της Ευρώπης, εκτοπίζοντας τη Ρωσία από την πρώτη θέση. Τον περασμένο χρόνο κάλυψε πάνω από το 30% των εισαγωγών αερίου στην ΕΕ.

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