Χιλιάδες οι μικρότερες μαύρες τρύπες γύρω από το κέντρο του γαλαξία μας

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Για πρώτη φορά οι αστροφυσικοί πιστεύουν πως έχουν βάσιμες ενδείξεις για την ύπαρξη ενός μεγάλου αριθμού μικρότερων μαύρων οπών γύρω από την τεράστια μαύρη τρύπα του γαλαξία μας, τον Τοξότη Α* (Sgr A*).

Η σχετική θεωρητική πρόβλεψη είχε γίνει εδώ και δεκαετίες, αλλά τώρα φαίνεται πως -χάρη στο διαστημικό τηλεσκόπιο ακτίνων-Χ Chandra- υπάρχουν και τα στοιχεία για να την στηρίξουν.

Οι ερευνητές, με επικεφαλής τον Τσαρλς Χέιλι, διευθυντή του Εργαστηρίου Αστροφυσικής του Πανεπιστημίου Κολούμπια της Νέας Υόρκης, που έκαναν τη σχετική δημοσίευση στο περιοδικό «Nature», εκτιμούν ότι σε απόσταση ενός παρσέκ (περίπου 3,26 ετών φωτός ή σχεδόν 31 τρισεκατομμυρίων χιλιομέτρων) από το γαλαξιακό κέντρο υπάρχουν 300 έως 500 μαύρες τρύπες σε διπλά συστήματα (δηλαδή σε ζεύγη όπου το ένα μέλος είναι άστρο και το άλλο μαύρη τρύπα, με τη δεύτερη να «καταπίνει» σταδιακά το πρώτο).

Παράλληλα, σύμφωνα με τις νέες ενδείξεις, υπάρχουν πολύ περισσότερες μεμονωμένες μαύρες τρύπες, τουλάχιστον 10.000, γύρω από τον Τοξότη Α*.

Ο γαλαξίας μας έχει έκταση περίπου 100.000 ετών φωτός και μέχρι σήμερα έχουν βρεθεί ενδείξεις για περίπου 50 μαύρες τρύπες. Θεωρητικά πρέπει να υπάρχουν 10.000 έως 20.000 μόνο σε μια απόσταση έξι ετών φωτός από το γαλαξιακό κέντρο, αλλά έως τώρα η ύπαρξή τους δεν είχε επιβεβαιωθεί.

Ο Τοξότης Α περιβάλλεται από μια άλω αερίων και σκόνης, που αποτελεί ιδανικό «μαιευτήριο» για τη γέννηση τεράστιων άστρων, τα οποία, όταν ολοκληρώσουν τον κύκλο της ζωής τους, πεθαίνουν με εκρηκτικό και θεαματικό τρόπο, μετατρεπόμενα σε μαύρες τρύπες. Πρόσθετες μαύρες τρύπες, που βρίσκονται έξω από αυτή την κεντρική άλω, σταδιακά έλκονται από αυτήν, καθώς χάνουν την ενέργειά τους.

Οι περισσότερες από αυτές τις παγιδευμένες μαύρες τρύπες παραμένουν απομονωμένες, αλλά μερικές ζευγαρώνουν με περαστικά άστρα, σχηματίζοντας έτσι ένα διπλό σύστημα. Κάπως έτσι, θεωρητικά τουλάχιστον, υπάρχουν ουκ ολίγες μαύρες τρύπες, είτε μοναχικές είτε ζευγαρωμένες, κοντά στο γαλαξιακό κέντρο όπως Αθηναϊκό Πρακτορείο Ειδήσεων.

Τώρα, για πρώτη φορά, η μελέτη των στοιχείων του τηλεσκοπίου «Τσάντρα» παρέχει βάσιμες ενδείξεις ότι ένας τέτοιος συνωστισμός μαύρων οπών όντως συμβαίνει. Οι μοναχικές μαύρες τρύπες είναι απλώς μαύρες, καθώς δεν αλληλεπιδρούν με τίποτε γύρω τους. Όμως οι ζευγαρωμένες προδίδουν την παρουσία τους, επειδή αλληλεπιδρούν με τα άστρα που τις συντροφεύουν και ο «γάμος» αυτός εκπέμπει ακτίνες Χ, οι οποίες είναι ανιχνεύσιμες από το Chandra.

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